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Containing Simple Brush and Pen Alphabets, With Easily Understood 
Instructions on How To Form Them. Revised from the Series of 
Articles Which Appeared Originally in the Northwest Commercial 
Bulletin and the Hardware Trade. 

Also Many Additional Novel Ideas and Suggestions 


Manager Service Bureau 

Northwest Commercial Bulletin and Hardware Trade 

cTWinneapolis - Saint Paul 



2/^ X 9./PP 


The Value of a Sign or Show Card 
Is Measured by Its "Pulling Power'' 

Whatever j^ou expect to 
do with an Air Brush, the 
Paasche will do it better for 
you. These illustrations 
show the value of attractive 
display matter, as well as 
give you an idea of the un- 
limited possibilities of what 
the Paasche will do for you. 

The Paasche "pays its 
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card and sign shop. 

Put the Real Punch or Kick 
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The versatility of Paasche Air 
Brushes, combined with speed, 
durability, efficiency, make them 
the most sought for and most 
widely known tools. 

The Paasche is easily cleaned 
and stays in working order long- 
er and better than any other air 

What the Public Appreciates in Artistic Display Matter 
the "Boss" Is Willing to Pay Well For 

For the Simplest 
Price Ticket to 
An Elaborate 
Card The Paa- 
sche serves the 
purpose much 
better than any 
other brush — 
and DOES BET- 


Model "D" 

3-in-l Air Brush 

able Sign 
done with 

and Profit- 
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Model "D." 


More of these Air Brushes are in use in Sign and 
Show Card Shops than all other makes combined. 

Model "D" at Work— Bottle for 
Large Work, Cup for Small 
Work. Both come with Outfit. 

Paashe Famous 3-in-l Air Brushes Are Made in All Sizes 


Show Cards - Window Backgrounds 

Our Larger Air Brushes are used for Refinishing 
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1 Red Sable Show Card Brush 

No. 12 
1 Red Sable Show Card Brush 

No. 8 
1 2-DZ. bottle Black Show Card Ink 
1 2-cz. bottle Red Show Card Ink 
1 2-cz. bottle Blue Show Card Ink 
1 2-oz. bottle Green Show Card Ink 
1 2-oz. bcttle Yellow Show Card Ink 

™^ "HANDY" 


I Automatic Lettering Pen 

1 set of Five Speed Ball Pens 

1 bottle Speedink for Pens 

50 sheets Cardboard, assorted 

colors, size 7x11 
100 Price Tickets, 3x5 inches 
200 Price Tickets, 2x3 inches 
5 Practice Charts for Speed Ball 


THIS "HANDY" Show Card Outfit was specially designed and selected 
by John H. DeWild, of the Commercial Bulletin and Hardware Trade 
Service Bureau, and is securely packed for shipment in a heavy corrugated 
board box. The outfit contains all the materials necessary for good show 
card work in the average store. Everything is first-class, the same as 
used by professionals. 


Our Price, Complete 

Parcels Post Prepaid, Only 





7Ae Northwest Commercial Bulletin or Hardware Trade 




ATTRACTIVE show cards, signs and price tickets help 
sell merchandise — and realizing that there are many 
merchants who desire to add to the attractiveness of 
their show windows and store interiors by the use of well-let- 
tered, attractive display signs, the Commercial Bulletin has 
decided to publish a complete book on this important work. 

The following pages cover thoroughly the rudiments 
of lettering with brush, also the various pens now in use, 
and explain the details in such a simple way that any one, 
even young boys and girls, can become quite proficient, 
even expert in lettering, by carefully studying each lesson 
and practicing until each exercise is thoroughly mastered. 

The author has endeavored to use simple language, 
avoiding technical and professional terms — so that nothing 
can be misunderstood. 

There has been but one thought in mind, throughout 
— that of giving to the retail trade a simple treatise that 
will be practical, helpful and easily mastered. 

The chapters on Advertising and Window Trimming 
have been written so that many merchants may have a 
handy, brief, instructive outline of the essentials that con- 
stitute successful publicity and Window Display, Better ad- 
vertising and neater displays mean more business. 



Advice as to Brushes, Ink, Cards, Etc. — Simple Letters Form Initial Lesson 
— Practice Main Requirement for Mastery of Work. 

Show card lettering is really simple. 
Once the beginner is supplied with the 
proper materials, and taught the correct 
manner of forming the various letters, it is 
only a matter of practice and patience, plus 
a little ambition and determination. 

First the student must provide himself 
with a few brushes and a jar of black show 
card ink. These may be obtained from any 
firm whose advertisements appear in this 
book. If you have difficulty in securing sup- 
plies, write to the Bulletin and the names of 
reliable firms will be furnished. 

Brushes of Prime Importance 

Brushes are very important. Secure the 
red sable show card brushes and DO NOT 
Good work is absolutely impossible with 
inferior brushes. 

The student should secure first, a brush 
that will make a stroke about one-eighth of 
an inch in width. This will cost very little. 

Fig. 1 

Fig. 2 

Most brush manufacturers call this a No. 8. 
However, the size numbers vary somewhat, 
but this is a splendid size for practice. A 
size smaller, and one or two larger ones 
should also be secured, and be sure and se- 
lect the show card ink in the flat black. 
Do not use drawing ink with brushes. The 
glos's black dries too quickly and is too 
"stiff" for the average beginner. The proper 
use of the "gloss" ink will be taught in the 
closing lessons. 

We will now suppose you are supplied 
with the necessary brushes and ink. Pro- 
vide for yourself also a number of sheets 
of coated cardboard, or sheets of heavy 
weight enameled paper. Insist upon card- 
board that is coated. Your printer can sup- 
ply these sheets — and have them cut into 
convenient sizes. 

Show card stock is regular cardboard size 
— 22x28 inches, and quarter sheets 11x14, 
make the best size for practice. 

Should Have a "T" Square 

Next you should secure a "T" square; and 
either make or purchase a drawing board 
or table which can readily be placed in a 
sloping position of about 30 to 45 degrees, 
to suit the convenience of the student. A 
few thumb tacks are also handy for fasten- 
ing the cardboard or paper to the drawing 

board, and you are now ready for the first 

Starting Out 
Draw a series of lines, with a lead pencil, 
lengthwise across your practice sheet. The 
first two lines should be not more than three- 
fourths inch apart, or nearly so. not less; 
then skip an inch and draw two more lines. 
The one-half to three-quarter inch spaces 
are about the proper height for the "lower 

in a small pan of water, or add water to 

your ink. Keep your brush in the shape as 

shown by the drawing on the right in Fig. 1. 

How to Hold Brush 

Hold the brush as shown in Fig. 2, and 
study this position carefully. 

Observe that the brush is NOT HELD 
LIKE A PEN, but that the handle is slightly 
ahead of or in front of the third joint of the 
forefinger. This is vitally important because 
without this position, straight, perpendicu- 
lar lines are impossible, and curves ami 
flourishes cannot be made in a uniform 

BE EASY. Do not hold the brush too 
tightly — and keep the chisel edge turned in 
the general direction of the stroke to be 
made — so that where the width of the stroke. 


case" letters to be practiced when using the 
No. 8 brush mentioned, or its equivalent. If 
however, after practicing for a while, the 
student finds that better work can be done 
with a larger brush, simply increase the 
height of the letters proportionately — and 
proceed just the same. 

Of Great Importance 

You are now ready to make the letters. 
First of all, you must always bear in mind 
this important point. Keep your brush well 

equals the width of the brush — the brush 
will be traveling squarely with the stroke, 
or nearly so. 

Ready now with your brush. Let the 
hand rest lightly on the paper, bearing the 
weight on the little finger which is slightly 
bent underneath the hand. Practice this po- 
sition so that the hand "slides" easily over 
the paper without effort. 

The First Lesson 

If you will now note Fig. 3 — you will see 

CI I Q 6> S 


inked so that the extreme point of the hairs 
forms a "chisel shape". Note Fig. 1. 

The drawing on the left shows how NOT 
to use the brush. You cannot make a neatly 
shaded letter when the brush coines to a 
point. "Work out" the bristles by moving 
the brush forward and back across an old 
piece of cardboard, or an old saucer after 
you have dipped it into the ink. Carry suffi- 
cient ink to cover the surface of the letter 
thoroughly — and if the ink is too thick 
moisten the brush occasionally by dipping 

that only four letters are given for the first 
lesson. The reason for this is that the "a", 
"e", "o" and "s" are the most difficult to 
make — and also that these four letters com- 
pose the dlflacult strokes that enter into the 
composition of most of the other letters, 
with the addition of the long downward 
stroke of the "1" and the shorter stroke of 
the letter "i". 

Figure 1 shows the position of the brush 
in making the various strokes. Note care- 
fully the angles at which the brush is held. 

Fig. 5 

Begin practicing the letter "a". Make the 
strokes as indicated by the numbered ar- 
rows in Fig. 3. Hold yovir brush straight in 
front of the body — and make the first stroke 
slightly sideways so that the "chisel edge" 
of the brush will form the light line, and 
gradually increase in width as you draw 
downward, then upward, completing the 
curve. Now take the brush and see that 
when you begin the second stroke — it is in 
the same relative position as when you 
started the first stroke. Then come straight 
down, using the full "chisel width" of the 
brush. As the brush reaches the pencil 
mark, or lower line, make a slight turn to 
the right, and gradually lift the brush from 
the paper. By doing this carefully you 
should have no difficulty in forming the 
"finishing curve" so necessary to good letter- 

In making the second letter "a" as indi- 
cated in Fig. 3, start the brush lightly and 
then make a sweeping stroke downward and 
toward the right, finishing by lightly lifting 
the brush from the paper or cardboard. The 
second stroke is made similar to the first 
stroke of the other "a" shown in the dia- 
gram. Bear in mind that the upward 
strokes of the brush must be light, thin. 

If the students prefer to make the letters 
exactly the same size as shown in the let- 
ters reproduced herewith — USE A No. 10 
BRUSH, or one that will make a stroke 
about the width as shown. 

In making the letter "e" note that the first 
stroke is very similar to the first stroke 
of the letter "a". Proceed the same way. 
Then make a short stroke of No. 2, and be 
sure to have the brush in such a position 
that the strokes join neatly. Stroke No. 2 
is downward in a curve, and stroke No. 3 
starts downward with a gradual curve up- 

Practice Required 

The first stroke of the letter "o" is the 
same as the letter "e" and the second stroke 
is a simple curve to the right — joining neatly 
a little to the left at the top and a trifie to 
the right at the bottom. (See the cross lines 
in Fig. 4). When you make this letter have 
your brush traveling straight with the stroke 
at its widest part. 

The letter "s" is rather difficult and may 
require considerable practice. Don't become 
discouraged at first, but always make the 
letter exactly as indicated by the various 
strokes and you will then have a uniform, 
neat letter. The first stroke is short, very 
similar to the second stroke of the "e", 
and the second stroke should be rounding, 
and come forward as far as the first stroke. 
Be careful in making stroke No. 3, and keep 
the brush in such a position that it will join 
into No. 3 without showing a "ragged" fin- 

This completes the details of the four 
most difficult letters. 

In practicing Fig. 5, using a No. 8 brush, 
rule your paper with lines about one-half 
inch apart, thus making the long strokes 
about one inch high. This exercise if prac- 
ticed thoroughly will enable the beginner 

to become used to the brush and its peculi- 

Thoroughly Master This Lesson 
Consistent practice will bring success. 
Sit down and practice the various strokes at 
every opportunity. Then take a sheet of 

paper and cover it with the letters "a", "e", 
"o", etc., alwa,ys ruling your paper to keep 
the letters uniform. 

Thoroughly master this first lesson, and 
the rest will be easy. It's all in the begin- 



How to Make Each Letter in the Easiest, Quickest Manner — This Is the 
Simplest Alphabet for Show Card Writing. 

Have you practiced the first lesson thor- 
oughly and mastered the simple strokes 
which are so necessary to good work? 

If so, you are now ready for lesson num- 
ber two. 

This is ihe alphabet promised in the first 
lesson, and you should be so proficient with 
the brush by this time that after several 
preliminary efforts, very creditable work 
should result. 

Only the lower case letters are shown, 
because this will limit the beginner to one 

professional loiterers are not "fast" in the 
strict sense of the word. The more artistic 
the letterer, the more time that person 
takes in doing good work. "Work fast 
where you can, but slow where you must," is 
a good motto to remember. 

Keep in mind the instructions given in 
the first lesson, and always keep your work 
in front of you. Do not lean too much to 
one side or the other, nor work from a 
slant, because this will soon prove tiresome, 
and is ruinous on the eyes. Your brush 

Fig:. 1. The lower case alphabet 

line of work; thus more will be accom 
plished, and there will be no confusion. 

Many students make a hurried effort to 
accomplish too much within a short time 
and as a consequence, never properly mas- 
ter the rudiments of the work. 

Practice of Vital Importance 

The preliminary pi-actice work is vitally 
important, because it is the real foundation, 
and unless the beginner conscientiously 
trie^ to make each letter just as it should be 
made, taking infinite time and pains where 
necessary, it will be useless to try to do 
clever work later on, where rare skill and 
practice are essential. 

Take Your Time 

Do not liurry in your practice work. Even 

liand should be in front of the body, and 
this will enable you to make the perpendic- 
ular strokes, that is — the straight "up-and- 
down" lines, in a more uniform manner. 

Brush Hints 

Keep your brush well filled with ink, so 
that smooth, clean lines result, but do not 
bear down too hard on the brush. 

One more word of advice and you will be 
ready to practice the alphabet. DO NOT 
CHISEL POINT. Learn just how wide the 
brush should "spread" to do good work, and 
keep it in that shape. If you force the 
"chisel" edge to an unusual width on some 
strokes, your letters will not be uniform. 


The natural stroke of the brush is the width 
of stroke you should always make. 
Here's the Alphabet 

Now for the alphabet as sho\vn in Fig. 1. 

Note that the lines and arrows indicate 
the direction of the brush stroke, and the 
numbers indicate the order in which the 
strokes should be made. 

In the first letter "a" as shown, you make 
the long stroke first, and the "bow" of the 
letter is made with the second stroke, an.l 
so on. Note the numbers of the strokes 
carefully, because they are important, and 
represent the easiest way of forming the 

By way of further explanation it should 
also be said that several styles of the letter 
"c" are shown, as well as several variations 
of the letters "f", "g", "h", "j", "k", 
"m", "n", and "s". This has been done to 
enable the student to take some choice in 
the matter, also for the additional reason, 
that lessons soon to follow will contain 
variations similar to the ones shown here. 
And as said before — now Is the time that 
the practicing should be done. 

The second figures showing the "m" and 
"n" have ihe last stroke somewhat on the 
slope, and these should be used where they 
happen to be the last letters in certain 



Figf. 2 

words, or ihe last in the line. They should 
not be used in the body of a word, unless 
you are using rather extended letters, and 
this will he shown in another lesson. 
Ruling Your Card 

When you rule your card board or prac- 
tice paper, do not forget the sizes of letters, 
and brush to use. As suggested in the first 
lesson — if you desire to make the body ol' 
your "lower case" letters, that is the round 
"bows", about one-half inch high, rule your 
paper accordingly and use a No. 8 brush, 
or a brush that will make a stroke a trifle 
more than one-eighth inch in width. The 
top line of your ruling to be used as a 
guide for the tops of the "stem-letters" like 
"b" and "d" should be not quite the same 
distance from what we call the middle line 
— that is the top line of the "a", etc. 

Fig. No. 2 shows the proper ruling for a 
No. 8 brush. 

If you are going to use a larger brush 
than No. 8, Increase the height of your lines 
accordingly. A No. 10 brush can be used 
for three-quarter inch letters, and a No. 12 
for letters about one inch in height or 
slightly over. Always bear in mind that 
the word height herein used, means the 
height of the "bows" of the letter, and not 
the total height of the "stems". 

The next lesson shows the Capital letters, 
and the figures, and then — you will be ready 
for actual window work. In the meantime, 
spend all the time possible in practice work. 

Master all the details, and the rest will 
be easy, for there are a number of alphabets 
to be siven, and the rudiments of lettering 
are much the same throughout. 


Neat "Capital" Letters and "Figures" or Numerals Are Absolutely Neces- 
sary If Good Work Is to Be Done. 

With this lesson are given the capital let- 
ters used in connection with the lower case 
alphabet already given, and also the figures, 
because you will no doubt want to use them 
in connection v.ith immediate work. 

To make the capital letters properly will 
take some time, but be earnest In your ef- 
forts, make each letter slowly and accur- 
ately, and speed will come with practice. 

What to Avoid 

In actual show card work it is best for 
the beginner to avoid usinp; words of "all- 
capital" letters. This will make your work 
easier, but there are times when it is neces- 
sary to spell out a word in capitals in order 
to make it larger and more striking on your 
show card. 

The numbered arrows on the chart re- 
produced herewith will show how the vari- 
ous strokes should be made, and after a 
little practice the entire series of letters can 
be made with one brush. For the beginner 
however, it will be easier to make the 
"spurs" that is — the little feet — and small 
extensions on each letter, with a very small, 
separate brush. The result will be neater, 
and it will save much time. 

How to "Mix" Your Ink 

As said before, keep your brush well 
chiseled, and do not have your ink too thick. 
Nor should you have the ink too thin. Mix 
a little ink on a piece of cardboard, or in 
a dish of some kind, and as the ink thickens, 
add a few drops of water or dip your brush 
in water. Do not keep dipping the brush 
in the ink jar, as this is apt to give your 
brush too much ink^ and at the same time 
spoils the chisel edge. Work the brush back- 
wards and forwards on the cardboard or dish 
where you have placed the surplus ink, and 
you will have no trouble in securing clean, 
neat strokes. 

There are several ways of shaping some 
of the letters, as you will note from the 
diagram, but it is best to avoid using the 
fancy letters, except at the beginning of a 
line, or for the first word on the show card. 
Too many fancy letters distract the eye, but 
one or two add much to the appearance of 
a card. 

Height of "Capital" Letters 

The height of your capitals should be the 
same as the longest stems of the lower case, 
except in rare cases where you desire, for 
the sake of appearance, to make the capital 
a bit larger. 

How to Form the Numerals 

And now for the "figures," or numerals. 
For the beginner — the making of neat fig- 
ures is usually a difficult proposition. But 
we shall try and explain some of the ele- 
ments which compose the most difficult fig- 
ures, and this will make it easy. 

You can all make a figure "1". That's 

The Figure "2" 

To make the figure "2" take your pencil 
and decide on the height and width you 
think the figure should be. One and a-half 
times higher than the width is a good pro- 
portion. When you have decided on this, with 
your pencil draw a box the height and width 
your numeral should be with front and 
back lines about as shown by the lines "a" 
and "b". Now, when, you start to make the 
figure "2" you begin at the center of the top, 
and come forward toward the left, and down- 
ward to the line "a", completing the stroke 
by putting on the "ball" shaped finish. 

Then from the top and center you draw 
to the right and downward to the line "b", 
making a graceful curve, and when about 
half the distance down, you begin to curve 
toward the front of the letter, and continue 
this curve until you reach the line "a" at 
the bottom of the fisure. Then draw the 
bottom bar, making it quite heavy, and ex- 
tend it to right until it touches line "b" 

In other words, the round ball at the top 
of the figure must be flush, or even, with 
the front of the figure at the bottom, and 
the back of the curve must be flush with 
the bar at the bottom. This will give you 
a nicely proportioned figure, but bear in 
mind that it must fit into an imaginary, 
oblong right-angle box. Many beginners get 
the front of the figure too far out, and this 
throws the numeral off its feet, and gives it 
a very homely slant. 

The Figure "3' 

The Figure "3" is easily made, by keeping 
in mind that the upper half should be made 
somewhat smaller than the lower section. 

The Figure "4" 

For the figure "4" draw with your pencil 
an oblong box the same size and shape as 
for the figure "2". Then start your first 
stroke with the brush, making a thin line 
from a little above the ton of the line "b" 
downwards and to the left, until your strike 
a point not less than two-thirds of the way 
down on the line "a". Then make the sec- 
ond stroke, somewhat of a wave, directly to 
the right, extending a little outside of the 
line "a". Then make the third stroke from 
near the beginning of the first line, down- 
ward to the base of the figure, and make this 
line rather heavy. In fact all the heavy lines 
of the figures should be the same thickness 
as the figure "1". This will give you a 
pleasing uniformity. 

Usually the figures "2", "4" and "5" are 
hard to make, but we hope we have made it 
easy, and by a little practice, you will soon 
be able to form neat, compact figures. 

The Figure "5" 

With the figure "5" again make a box 

with your lead pencil, and when making the 
figure with the brush, draw the thin line, 
numbered "1" to a point about half the 
height of the figure. Then draw half of the 
bottom loop, stroke number "3", then make 
the top bar, (stroke 3) watching that the 
right of the bar is not drawn to a point 
more than the center of the heavy line of 
the loop below (See the dotted line "a".) 
Then you draw the last part o£ the loop, 
stroke number "4", and bring this out to a 
point just a little beyond the thin down- 
ward line (stroke "1") which if continued, 
should penetrate the ball about the center. 

(Note arrow numbered "a") and that the 
center of the ball is centered under the first 
stroke. This gives you a well proportioned 
figure "5", and you can vary this as you 
desire, when more proficient. 

The first half of the figure "6" is just like 
making the first stroke of the letter "0". 
Then you make the round part as shown 
by stroke "2", and then finish off the top. 

The figure "7" is self explanatory. Make 
the top first, drawing from the left toward 
the right, and then downward. 

The figure "8" is simply the making of 

two "o's" having the top a little smaller 
than the bottom. 

The figure "9" is simply the reverse of 
the figure "6" with the exception that many 
show card men prefer to make the small 
loop first, as shown by the numbered 

The figure "o" is made the same as the 
letter "O". 

Concludes Fundamentals of the Roman 

This will conclude the fundamentals and 
instruct ion:5 on how to draw the plain Ro- 
man alphabet. 

Read the A(dvertisements — They Tell You Where to Secure the Various Supplies Needed. 




Following the instructions in the previous 
lessons we have taken the same style of let- 
tering for the four Easter show cards re- 
produced herewith. 

Easy to Produce 

Those who have been practicing diligently 
will find the making of these cards a very 
simple matter. There is only one require- 
ment — patience. Make each letter slowly 
and do not hurry. Keep your brushes well 
filled with ink, and keep a good chisel edge 
on the brush. 

The originals of these reproductions were 
"half sheets" or 14x22 inches. 

Before you begin to work on an expensive 
piece of card board, however, it would be a 
good idea to take a sheet of white paper the 
same size and letter out your show card as 
you think it ought to be arranged and when 
completed, study the "balance" and note 
whether or not it is just what you want. If 
not you can make the alterations desired on 
the original, and thus avoid much time, 
waste and possible discouragement. 

The decorative borders, etc., of the cards 
were all made by filling a common atomizer 
with ink and spraying against the stencils, 
which were cut from cheap paper. 
Figure 1 

The border design of Figure 1 was made 
by cutting a piece of paper about one inch 

Fig. 1 

smaller, all around, than the card board and 
then cutting out the corners as shown. This 
cutout was fastened to the show card, and 
purple ink sprayed about the edge. 

The lettering was done with a No. 10 show 
card brush, using black ink. For the mak- 
ing of the small letters in the lower right 
hand corner, the brush was rolled in the 

Ink, until the point was somewhat round. 
For the underscoring — simply take the ruler 
and mark a line underneath the lettering 
with a pencil. Follow this line as closely as 
possible with the brush.. 

Figure 2 

In Figure 2, a plain piece of paper with 
square corners, and about one inch smaller, 
all around, than the card board was used 
as a design, and fastened to the show card. 
Green ink used in the atomizer. 

The lettering on this card was also done 
with a No. 10 brush, and then the letters of 
the first two lines were shaded with gray. 

Fig. 2 

A pretty shade of gray may be easily mixed 
by using equal parts of black and white ink, 
adding white until the proper shade has been 
obtained. For the shading, a No. 8 brush 
was used, the edge being kept well chiseled. 
For shading, just imagine that the original 
letters are about one inch in height, and 
held out from the paper, and that the light 
from a lamp held above and to the right of 
the letters, was making the shadow or shad- 
ing. This will tell you where the shading 
lines should be drawn. More will be said 
about shading later on in the .show card 
course, but for a finished card for Easter, 
this makes a very attractive design, and one 
that is very easily made. 
Figure 3 

In Figure 3, the top and bottom designs 
of the rabbits were drawn from a paper cut- 
out, and black ink sprayed against the cut- 
out. The lettering was in gray. 

The first line was underscored in black, 
and the center of the letters was decorated 
with a black dot, and two small lines, one 
above and the other below the dot. These 

decorations do not show up strongly In the 
reproduction, but they add much to the 

The three small lines of lettering in the 
center of the card were shaded with black. 

Fig. 3 

A No. 10 brush was used for the letterfng, 
and a No. S for the shading. Underline the 
first word as directed in the first design. 
Figure 4 
Figure 4 was prepared in about half hour's 
tjme. The design of the "chick" just ap- 
pearing from the egg shell was drawn with 
a pencil on a piece of paper and then cut 
out as Shown. Then the purple ink was 
sprayed against the design with the atomi- 


Fig. 4 

zer. The letterlns was done entirely with a 
No. 10 brush. 

This will give an idea of what can be done 
in a short time, and perhaps will aid many 
enthusiastic card writers, who are endeavor- 
ing to prepare something "new" for Easter. 
Various colors of cardboard may be used, 
and there is no limit to the color combina- 
tions that, may be obtained by the use of the 
many colored inks that can be purchased at 
small cost. 

Patronize the Advertisers in This Book. They Are Reh'able. 




'Italic" Style Has Many Uses — Clear-cut Instructions in This Lesson, To- 
gether With Sample Show Cards. 

This lesson shows a complete alphabet, 
including numerals, in what is known as 
"Show Card Italic." 

The word Italic as applied to lettering, 
and type in general, means that the letters 
have a slight slope toward the right — that 
is they "lean" at an angle of about twenty 
degrees, according to the fancy of the show 
card writer. 

The alphabet as drawn for this lesson is a 
combination of the printer's Italic, and the 
Script Italic— the latter being a deeply 
shaded style of connecting each letter with 
the one following, as in actual writing. 

Has Many Uses 

Italic in show card work has many uses. 
In the first place — a line or two drawn in 
Italic style breaks up the monotony of the 
plain Roman style, which already has been 

Italic is also much used on small size 
show cards and is especially adapted for 
jeweler's windows, small cards for display 
cases, etc., and is also called into play a 
great deal for what is known as "catch 

Fig. 1 

lines" which are shown in the examples of 
show cards reproduced in this lesson. 

For the beginner, who has already 
mastered the Roman alphabet, there are a 
few fundamental points or "tricks" to bear 
in mind in order that the work may be uni- 

Tricks of the Trade 

Before practicing the Italic, take a piece 
of heavy cardboard about eighteen inches 
high and about ten inches wide, and with 
the scissors or knife trim one side at an 
angle as shown by the line "D-C" in Figure 
1. The lines "A-B" and "B-C" should form 
a perfect triangle. Some card writers make 
a "square" of this kind out of light wood 
or sheet metal, and it can be used for many 
purposes, because two of the sides are 

square for straight lines, and the side that 
has the "slope" is used as the Italic guide. 
Serves as Guide 
With the cardboard cut as shown, the be- 
ginner should place this upon the paper or 
show card upon which he intends to prac- 
tice or letter, and draw a series of light 
lines upon the surface of the card, beginning 
at the extreme left side and continuing to- 

sons, except that the brush may be held with 
the left hand side of the "chisel" slightly 
more downward than formerly. By holding 
the brush in this manner, you may find that 
you get the "angle" of the Italic more read- 
ily, and the turns at the top and bottom of 
the letters will be more uniform. 

Figure 2 Shows Lower Case 

Figure 2 shows the lower case, and it is 
very much the same as the Roman, with 
the exception of the slope. Practice this 
very carefully, endeavoring at all times to 
get your letters uniform and neat — and the 
strokes of even width. Tlie brushes for this 
alphabet are the same size as suggested i'or 
the Roman. 

Capital Letters 

Figure 3 shows the Capital letters and 

c CI a b b Ih I ^k i n u i u -\ 



" Fig. 2 

ward the right at intervals of about one 
inch. These lightly drawn lines will serve 
as guides, and will insure that all the words 
done with the brush, or pen, in practicing 
will have a uniform slope. By punching a 
hole in the cardboard guide it can be hung 
up when not in use, and will thus always be 
available when you desire to letter in Italic. 
How to Hold Brush 
The general style of lettering for this 
alphabet is the same as in the previous les- 

the figures. Note that there are a few new 
styles shown in Capital letters. The stu- 
dent should become familiar with these — 
and use them whenever possible for the rea- 
son that much of the beauty of the Italic 
comes from the fact that it is a little dif- 

The figures are made the same as shown 
in the Roman, although they should follow 
the same general slope as the letters. The 
dotted lines indicate how the beginner 

Fig. 3 


should draw his "guide" lines for practice 
and this will insure uniformity. 

In the lower case aJphabet reproduced, 
here will be found a number of examples 
with numbered strokes, showing the general 
composition of some of the letters, and by 
closely observing the details there should 
be no difficulty in getting the right start. 
Take a little time at first, and by going 
slowly the "knack" will soon be acquired. 
Specimen Cards 

Figure 4 shows the use of the Italic in act- 
ual work. This card has the first prominent 

lines in Italic, and is an example of how 
they contrast with the other lettering. This 
would be more so if the words "Attractive 
Neckwear" were drawn with red ink, or 
other bright color. 

Figure 5 is an example of emphasizing 
the wording in the center, or nearer the 

bottom of the card. Wherever Italic is used 
it should be borne in mind that "contrast" 
or "emphasis" is the effect sought, and the 
Italic should be used accordingly. 

Figure 6 shows the Italic used for the 
short lines which in printing and show card 
work are called "catch lines." 

By drawing your catch lines in Italic, 
rather smaller than the lines that are to 
follow, you save space, and break up the 
monotony of the same style of lettering. 

"Catch lines" may be drawn in either 
lower case or all capital letters — but the 
latter should generally be used when the 
lines that are to follow are to be lettered in 

Bear These in Mind 

There is another rule to remember also, 
and that Is when show cards are lettered 
entirely with the Italic, they should be in 
Upper and Lower case, with the exception 
of prominent display lines. Many show card 
writers use the Italic extensively because 
of the rapidity with which the letters can 
be drawn, and many who practice this style 
of lettering will also find that this alphabet 
can be drawn more easily than the plain 

Always bear in mind, however, that the 
letters must be drawn with a UNIFORM 
SLOPE, otherwise the show cards will ap- 
pear terribly amateurish, and spoil much of 
the attractiveness. 

Learn to do the work well, and speed will 
come with practice. Draw slowly and you 
will gradually acquire a steady hand. Don't 
try to draw rapidly to "keep your hand from 
wobbling" because this will prove a bad 
habit that later must be overcome. 

-".^ — 1^^ s^ ,. 





IDide AwalaCe 






Various Ways of Forming "Spurs" or the Little Finishing "Touches" That 
Change Appearance of Alphabets. 

This is a very important lesson in Show 
Card writing, and should be carefully 

As promised in the previous lesson, this 
article will show how to make three lower 
case alphabets out of one. 

A simple change in forming the "spurs" 
does the trick. 

If you will refer to Lesson Number Two, 
you will note from a careful study of the 

shown next, and then the straight "spur" 
or Roman "spur." By transforming the 
tops and bottoms of the stems of the alpha- 
bet you happen to be making, to conform 
with any one of these examples, you have a 
perfect lower case alphabet. 

The "angle spur" is one that Is very popu- 
lar with professional show card men. 
One Important Rule 

There is only one important rule in 

Nole the differeat \\)qv3 of Finishiag Ike "Spars" 

5 - - ' I i I 1 1 I "^ • 


mj J J 


Fig. 1 

Fig. 5 

lower case shown there that most of the 
stems of the letters begin with a curve. 

See Figure 1 

Now look at Figure 1 in this lesson and 
you will note from this diagram that there 
are three ways of forming the top "spur" 
of these stems. There is the round spur, as 
shown first and then the "angle spur" as 

transforming these strokes, and that is — 
when you use the "angle spur" the last 
stroke of the lower case "m," "n" and "h" 
should usually form a curve. Note the first 
lower case "m," in Figure 1. 

It may take some practice at first to form 
these strokes, and have them uniform but 
if you have learned to keen your brush well 
chiseled, and your ink thin enough to work 


well and flow freely from the brush, you will 
have good success. 

Study Figure 2 
In malting the alphabet as shown in Fig- 
ure 2, start the stems of the letters with a 
slight up stroke, as this will assist greatly 
in forming the sharp angle just before you 
begin the downward stroke. Then, when 
the downward stroke has reached the base 
line, or bottom of the letter, go back to the 

The strokes of this style of lower case 
are the same as shown in previous lower 
case alphabets, and the same adaptation can 
be made of the Italic which was shown in 
the last lesson. 

And perhaps a word of encouragement 
will not be out of place here. 
Of Great Assistance 

To the student who perfects this alphabet 
it will be found a great aid in show card 

abedef qKijk 


top and finish the spur. Next you nnish work because it is a professional style, and 

the spurs at the bottom of the stems. Take 
great care at first and learn to be exact and 
have the spurs uniform, and also see that 
the stems of the letters are of the came 

works well with many other styles of let- 
tering — no matter whether an extremely 
condensed style is necessary, or a very ex- 
tended letter must be used. The various in- 
novations exemplifying "condensed" and 

To further insure uniformity, it would be "extended" will follow in a future lesson. 

well for the student to rule the practice 

The lower case alphabet shown in Figure 




sheets as shown in the second lesson and 
if good work cannot be accomplished with 
a Number 8 brush, take a larger brush, and 
increase the size of the letters accordingly. 
Some students when beginning to learn to 
letter have much better success if they 
make larger letters, many times using a 
brush as large as Number 12. 

Size of Brush Immaterial 

Keep in mind that the size of brush you 
use is immaterial, the main idea being to 
form neat, even letters, and prevent ragged 
edges at the spurs. 

Care at first, insures speed later on. 

1 .1 It 

3troKe Stroke) : Stroke 

1 a 3 

FIs. 4 

3 is a reproduction of how to form the sharp 
or square spur. 

The strokes are the same as in previous 
alphabets, with the exception that it is not 
necessary to make a slight upward stroke 
in forming the stems; but rather the artist 
touches the brush to the cardboard very 



lightly, in beginning the stroke, and then 
moves the brush a trifle to the right, having 
the chisel edge exactly at right angles With 
the direction of the downward stroke. 

At the completion of the downward 
strokes, the brush is held at right angles, 
and the chisel edje moved slightly toward 
the left, and then toward the right. This 
movement, followed by two strokes made 
from the stem of the letter, and just above 
the spur, will assist in forming a perfect 

Figure 4 a Guide 

Note the direction of various "strokes" as 
shown in Figure 4. 

Here you will note the beginning of the 
stroke, the completion of the lower spur, 
and last— the completion of the top spur. 
Three Specimens in One Illustration 

Figures 5, and 7 show the same word 



Fig. 6 
ing, written on the same size show cards, 
but using adaptations of the three styles, 
as suggested in this lesson. 

Figure 5 is the style of "round" spur as 
shown in Lesson 2. This style of lettering 







FiK. 7 

is simplest and quickest, but not always the 

Figure 6 is an examnle of the "angle" 
spur, and is very neat and rapid work can 
be done with this style. 

Figure 7 shows the straight or finished 
"Roman" style of "spur". This style pat- 
terns after the printed style to a consider- 
able extent, and is used in many carefully 
drawn show cards where "dignity" is essen- 



This Lesson Illustrates a Rapid Means of Lettering With a Pen That Any- 
one Can Master. 

This lesson on show card writing, and the 
one following, should be intensely interest- 

We are going to forsake the brush tem- 
porarily, and take up what is professionally 
known as the "SPEED BALL PEN." 

These pens, which are among the best 
things out for simple pen lettering and 
Quick show card work, get their name from 
the flat foot, which is bent in such a manner 
that the foot rests flat on the paper or card- 

OF Ptti T) 

Fig. 1 
Showing both the round and square point pen. 

board, and enables the person using the pen 
to make a rapid, even, uniform stroke. 
Simple Operation 

The "speed ball" is only a recent inven- 
tion, but has been adopted by show card 
men all over the country as extremely prac- 
tical and rapid, and Is meeting with the ap- 
proval of merchants who are doing their 
own show card work because of the extreme 
simplicity of operation. 

These pens come in both the round and 
square point but for the average show card 
writer, the round point will suffice, as it 
is easier to manipulate and for this reason 
will be the only style considered in the next 
three or four lessons. 

Figure 1 will give the reader an idea of 



Width of strokes 

the appearance of the pens. They are simi- 
lar to the ordinary writing pen, and are 
made in the same shape, of the same inateri- 
al, except the foot or writing point. 
How to Order 
Tliere are five sizes, and Figure 2 will 

show the various widths of the strokes. 
When you order a set of these pens, order 
a full set of sizes and then you can do a 
much greater amount and variety of work. 
They retail at a very reasonable price per 
dozen, and may be had of the firms whose 
advertisements appear in this book. 

The ink should be drawing ink and there 
are several grades on the market. 

There are -various colors to be had, also, 
but blue, black, green and red are the best. 
Light colors have a tendency to gather at the 
lower edges of the letters, and this spoils the 
neat appearance of show cards. White 
ink can also be used for black cardboard, 
but most professional show card men are 
using the plain white card, with neat black 
lettering, embellished sometimes by brush 
work, for large figures, colored ornamenta- 
tion, etc. 

Quick Results 

Figure 3 shows the lower- case of the 
simplest pen alphabet that can be made, 
and we have tried to make this rudimen- 
tary that every merchant and student may 

the pen, first try out the exercises as shoivn 
following the letter "z" on Figure 3. 

Keep the pen flat on the surface of the 
paper or cardboard, and press down suffi- 
ciently hard with the hand so that the pen 
makes a full even stroke. 

Follow Previous Rules 

Be sure and learn to have your work 
straight in front of you as stated in other 
lessons, and rule your cards with pencil, so 
you have a suitable guide for your work. 

Don't try to carry too much ink, or it will 
"run" and spoil your work. Each pen is 
proMided with a special fountain which 
comes with the pen, and this enables the 
user to judge the amount of ink that the 
pen can hold. The pen should not be dipped 
too far into the ink bottle. When there is 
too much ink — it is best to have a piece of 
blotting paper handy, or soiled cardboard, 
and by quickly jerking the pen to one side, 
before using, the surplus ink can be shaken 

"Haste Makes Waste" 

Practice slowly and patiently. It has been 
found in demonstrating these pens at the 
various state conventions and merchahts 
short courses that there is a tendency on 
the part of beginners to "rush" the work, 
thinking that they can make better appear- 
ing letters if they do it rapidly. This may 
seem true at fir.ot. but the person who begins 
slowly and does neat work will soon master 
a style that is both rapid and neat, while 






Fig". 3. Lower case alphabet 

soon become "artist" enough to make very 
good show cards and price tickets. 

The light lines with arrows show the di- 
rection in which the pen should move in 
forming the letters and the figures denote 
the stroke that should be made first, and so 

The original drawing from which Figure 
3 was made, was drawn with a Number 3 
pen, and the total height of the letters was 
one and one-half inches. 

In practicing and becoming familiar with 

ttherwise there will never be a real "finish" 
to your work. 

Begin by practicing one letter at a time, 
and make a full sheet of letter "a's". Then 
begin with the letter "b" and so on through 
the alphabet. 

From this simple alphabet we will chow 
three or more, each with the same general 
principle, but with some little changes that 
will enable the studious persons to do some 
wonderful show card work within a short 




"Capitals" and "Numerals" Given in This Lesson— Completing the Sim- 
plest "Speed Ball" Alphabet. 

It might be well also at this time to again 
caution those who are using these pens as 
to the kind of ink that should be used. 

Ordinary writing ink, in the dark colors, 
is too thin for good work, and it will be 
much easier and much more rapid if you 
Drocure the regular drawing ink, or inV 
that is made for the speed ball pens. With 
some colors, purple, red and green, the ordi- 
nary writing fluid might do, especially If 
confined to the smaller pens, but the regu- 
lar drawing inks are much to be preferred, 
and the range of colors is almost unlimited. 
Have Bright Colors on Hand 

For those who are going to do consider- 
able work and make large numbers of show 
cards it is best that a good supply of colors 
be kept on hand, for in this lesson we men- 
tion a great many unique color combination.s 
that are easily formed, and the result is 
very attractive show cards. 

Those who have been practicing the lower 
case alphabet consistently will find it easy 
to form the capitals and figures. 
Care in Practice Work 

The important thing to remember is that 
great care should be taken in the practice 
work, and the show card writer must take 
time to see that every letter is carefully and 
perfectly formed. If great care is taken in 
practice it will be found that speed -will 
come later and much neater cards will be the 

In Figure 1 it will be found that all the 
strokes are numbered, as in previous les- 
sons; and it will also be seen that several 
ways are given for making some of the let- 
ters. This is done because it is often de- 
sirable to add a little embellishment to some 
cards, and a "fancy" letter for the first word 
on a show card, especially if the wording 
is large, adds to the attention pulling power 
of the card. 

Early Efforts Count 

Remember it is the early efforts that 
count, and now is the time to learn to do the 

work as it should be done. 

The neater you make your show cards, the 
more attention they will attract, the more 
comment I hey cause and the more merchan- 
dise they will sell. 

In forming the capital letters it will be 
seen that most of the lines are straight lines. 
How to Form "Curves" 

Where there are curves to be made these 
curves should be formed by working the pen 
from right to left and from left to right, 
instead of keeping the pen on the paper and 
trying to complete the "curve" in one stroke. 

Take the second capital "A" for instance. 
The curve indicated by the strokes num- 
bered 1 and 2 is more easily made by lifting 
the pen at the bottom of the line, and then 
again coming downward in stroke 2, than 

were you to attempt the complete line by 
moving the pen upward, toward the left. 
Downward strokes are the best, and you 
should practice with this idea In mind. 

In forming a more complete curve like the 
second capital "J" the main stroke, and the 
circle or curve require three strokes, and 
the pen is lifted from the paper or card each 
time. By making the strokes in this man- 
ner you get a better curve, and the work is 
more easily and quickly done. 

This same rule applies to all of the pen 
alphabets and to brush work also. 

In forming the capital "O" the same meth- 
od should be used, moving from right to 



Fig. 2 

left, for half of the letter, and then coming 
down the other side. 

Making the Capital "S" 
The capital "S", usually a difficult letter 
for most beginners, is very easily formed, 
and the strokes should be made as indicated. 
Do not attempt to make this letter in one 
stroke. You will always have difficulty in 
making a neat letter if you do not follow 
the directions here given. 

Start right or it wil be a serious handicap 
for the work that is to follow. 
Follow Directions 
Practice the letters just as they are given, 
and in the manner indicated — this will be 
found the best as you progress, and will en- 
able you to readily learn the other pen al- 
phabets which appear in other lessons. 

From the alphabet given In the last les- 
son, and the capitals and figures shown here, 
there are several adaptations which will 
surprise and delight you. and in time you 
will be able to do every bit as neat work 
as that appearing in many of the large 

How to Make "Figures" 
The numerals, or figures, are very easily 
made also. Note that most of them consist 
of curves, and if you practice as indicated 
moving the pen downward as much as pos- 
sible in forming the "curves", you will have 
very little trouble. 

Keep to the designs and shapes as shown, 
because other designs are to follow, and if 
you learn each lesson as you go along there 
will be no confusion later. 

Use of Colored Ink 
Figure 2 shows a simple show card made 
with the speed ball pen, and the large price 
near the bottom was outlined with a com- 
mon fine point writing pen. Black ink was 

There are any number of color combina- 
tions that can be used, however, in outlin- 
ing price figures and some of the larger let- 
ters, by using colored inks. 

If you will procure some orange colored 


drawing ink and outline with faint lines 
the prices, or some of the important word- 
ing, you will be surprised at the effect. 

In outlining the figures and letters use a 

fine pen and make rather "rugged" lines, 

trying to keep about the same distance irom 

the letter as you work the outline around it. 

Price in "Bright Ink" 

Using a brightly colored ink for the price 
in contrast to the balance of the card is 
also a good way to add to the attractiveness 
of your displays. Red is a good color for the 
price and blue also. If you use blue, try 
outlining ihe price with black, and note the 
improved appearance. 

Most show card writers in the large cities 
are confining their "speed ball" work to 
white cardboard. There are, however, many 
card colors that can be used, but you should 
procure card boards that have a smooth 
surface, at least until you become more fa- 
miliar with the use of the pen. 

Colors for Small Cards 

You can get yellow, pink, blue and other 
colored boards from the printing otfice for 
small cards, and these add variety to win- 
dow displays and your display cases. As 
you add to your variety of inks you will 
"happen upon" many other combinations 
which you will want to use. 

Practice the work as shown here, and in 
Figure 3 is shown a very simple card which 
any one can make after a few trials. 

In cards of this character the price should 
be in large figures, and in this case could 
be in red ink. 

Borders on Cards 

If in making your show cards you desire 
to have borders on some of them, use a light 
colored ink and draw light lines about 
three-quarters of an inch from the edge of 
the card. This makes a better card. 

Don't have all your cards "fancy" for if 
you do you lose much of the effect that is 
gained in contrast. 

Have the feature cards made in color com- 
binations, and use plain colors for the 
smaller cards. If you have feature cards 
in sight continually, you lose the value that 
is gained by flashing unique cards when 
there is a big sale on, and when you want 
to attract unusual attention particularly just 
at the Christmas season, Easter, Spring and 
Fall Openings, etc. 

The next lesson contains a number of 
novel ideas for show cards, and some adap- 
tations from the alphabet shown here. 

Practice this one thoroughly and you will 
be ready for the next. 



How to Improve Your Style of Lettering by Addition of Spurs, or Feet- 
This Style Is Best If Properly Mastered. 

This lesson, as promised in the previous 
one, will show how it is possible to make 
practically an entire new pen alphabet from 
the last "lower case" shown, using the basic 
strokes of the former one for a beginning. 

Study the alphabet shown previously, and 
then compare it with the lower case letters 
shown here in Figure 1, and you will note 
the similarity. 

The only difference in the forming of the 









\ m m o \w 

Fi<jA Viqb Pi(jO Fig^D Pi<3^E Vic^P 

letters of the two alphabets with the speed 
ball pen is that, in Figure 1 in this lesson, 
each letter is finished off with a "spur" or 
"foot" as the finishing touch is sometimes 

The reason for these finishing touches is 
that they make the letters appear neater 
and more complete. 

You will also note from the numbered 
examples in Figure 1 just how these "spurs" 
should be formed. The following is a good 

Fig-. 1 

Fig. -2 

rule to follow, if you would be absolutely 
sure of your spacing: 

How to Form Letters 

In forming the letters, use your eye to 
gauge just where the downward stroke for 
the stem of the letter should come. Then 
place your pen a slight distance to the left, 
and, by moving the pen slightly toward the 
right on a straight line, you will have the 
beginning of the spur. When you have 
moved the pen far enough to form the 
"spur," bring the pen straight downward to 
form the stem of the letter. This makes 
a neat angle, and you should endeavor to 
have these angles uniform. 

How to Form "Spurs" 

Figure A will give you an idea how to 
do this. The first mark showni is the begin- 
ning of the stroke for the smaller "stem" let- 
ters. Move the pen slightly toward the 
right, and then come straight down, to the 
base line. When you have reached the base 
line, complete the "foot" by making a stroke 
across the bottom of the downward line, 
then you have a completed line as shown In 
the last line in this example. 

Figure B shows the same process carried 
out with the letters requiring the long stem, 
such as the lower case "1", "b", "d", "h" and 

Figure C shows the first stroke in forming 
the letters such as lower case "v". Note 
that the spur here comes across the top, ex- 
tending slightly on both sides. 

Figure D shows how to form the letter 


"m". The letter "n" is made in the same 
manner. The first strolie is completed, In- 
cluding the spurs, then the following down- 
ward stroiies, and last — you add the "feet." 
Practice to Form Perfect Circles 

Figure E is given for the reason that it 
represents a perfect circle, and this Is one 
of the most important features of this whole 
alphabet. If the student will take the pen 
and practice a great number of circles, the 
remainder of the alphabet will be an easy 

Study This Lower Case 

From close observation and study of the 
lower case, as shown in Figure 1, you will 
readily see that all of the letters which have 
bows, such as the lower case "a-b-c-d-e-g-p 
and q" — the bows of these letters all con- 
form to the elements of a perfect circle. 
Thus, if in making the letters you keep this 
important facr in mind, and try and make 
all the "bows" alike, you will find yourself 
forming a much neater alphabet, and one 
that will i>e uniform in appearance. 
Circle is the Unit 

In this pen alphabet the circle is known as 
the regular unit — and every alphabet has a 
"unit" which designates the various sizes or 
proportions of the letters. 

In making the letter "a" for instance, bear 
in mind that the round part should be as 

Tr^ One of Our 






Relief Guai'diileed 

nearly like a circle as it is possible to make 
it; and so in the letter "b". Try and make 
the round part, the bow — as nearly circular 
as you can. 

The same rule applies to the rest of the 
letters as stated above, where there is a 
"bow" to be formed. 

Figure F shows how to form the lower 
case "w" in that the two parallel strokes 
should be made first — and remember they 
are downward strokes. 

After you have made the downward 
strokes — then put on the "spurs." 
Be in Earnest — Practice 

This in brief tells all there is to do in 
making this very pretty and attractive al- 

If you are really in earnest in your efforts 
to do good show card work, practice faith- 
fully until you have mastered every detail. 

This is a type of lettering that is in use In 
many large department stores, and is real- 
ly one of the most attractive alphabets ever 

Practical Use 

Now for some examples to demonstrate 
how this alphabet may be put to practical 

Fig. 4 

use — and the next lesson will include a set 
of Capitals, that will add greatly to its 
desirability and practicability. 

Figure 2 is a Combination 

Figure 2 shows a combination of the last 
two alphabets, in that the first line "Silks" 
the letters are finished off with "spurs." The 
second and third lines are the same, while 
the last three lines are lettered after the 
style shown in lessons 7 and 8. 

This style of show card is easily made 
and many attractive color combinations 
may be used. 

The capital "S" should be white, the dark 
background surrounding, could be gold, and 
the thin line around the outside of the gold 
background could be bright red. 
■ The border line could be some shade of 
green, or a black line would do. 

Figure 3 for Warm Weather 

Figure 3 is a very striking design. The 
border on this card should be light blue, 
slightly touched up with white, to represent 
snow and ice, and this could be made all 

the more realistic by spattering with dia- 
mond dust before the ink or paint dries. 

The first line of lettering should be in 
black, then the next three lines, drawn 
rather irregularly, to denote coolness, should 
be in dark blue, also spattered with dia- 

Ouf Mid- Summer 


Dr'mqs Dovn. 
Shoe Prices 

1 Kese w/( 


no^ Ll*^ 

Fig. 5 

mond dust to resemble snow. The re- 
mainder of the card could be lettered with 

Figure 4 — Something Different 

Figure 4 is a very simple design, yet there 
is no limit to the variations of this idea. 

The first word was simply written in with 
red ink, using a large speed ball pen, :\nd 
the balance of the card was lettered in 
black. Care should be taken to choose some 
word, or words for the top of the card that 
will not appear too crowded. The border, 
also drawn with the speed ball pen, was 
made irregular to add to the attractiveness. 

The style of lettering is an adaptation of 
the lower case alphabet shown in this les- 

Figure 5 — Sales Cards 

Figure 5 is an example of clear cut letter- 
ing, and is an excellent style for clearance 
sale windows or interior decorating. 

The lettering may be of any color, but 
black is preferable, on white cardboard, for 
the upper section. 

The circle should be drawn with green 
ink, and the price within the circle should 
be drawn with red. This makes a very 
striking bargain card, and the price can be 
seen for a great distance. 

The originals for the show cards shown 
herein were all about 14 inches in heig'ut. 

Every Store Should Have Pens 

A set of pens should be in every store, 
and surely there is someone in each store 
who, with a little practice, can do very cred- 
itable work. 




Additional "Speed Ball" Capitals and Numerals, Also Hints on How to 

Improve Style of Lettering, Including Easily Executed Examples 

of Show Cards and Color Combinations. 

This is the lesson you have been looking 
forward to. Study the charts carefully, for 
these "capital" letters are the neatest and 
most desirable for general show card work 
that you will find published anywhere. 

The "capitals" shown here are designed 
to go with the "speed ball" lower case ehown 
in lesson 9. 

The letters are not difficult to make, and 
we are sure a little practice upon your part 
will enable you to duplicate the general 
style to perfection. 

Bear in mind that the same general char- 
acteristics possessed by this alphabet were 
called to your attenfion concerning the pre- 
vious lower case in lessons 7, 8 and 9. 
Idea of Circle Important 

Wherever there is a circular part to the 
letter, this circular shape should conform as 
nearly as possible to a circle. Keep this 
idea in mind when practicing, and the rest 
will be easy. 

The only change in this alphabet from the 
"capitals" previously shown is in the finishing 
of the letters. Note that the stems of the 
letters in Figure 1 all have the "feet" or 
finishing "spurs" carefully placed at top, and 

bottom, also that the right and left strokes 
like at the top and bottom of the capital 
"B" extend a short distance beyond the 
straight up-and-down stroke, and this adds 
much to the finished appearance of the let- 
ters. Note also the extension on the capital 
"D", "E", etc. 

"Fancy" Letters 

The fancy letters, like the second "A", 
the first "M," etc., are to be used for the 
first letter on a show card, that is the first 
letter of the most prominent word; al- 
though there are excepions to this rule. 

Your artistic sense of judgment will tell 
you where the fancy letters will appear the 
best, and after all has been said and done, 
clever show card writing is much a matter 
of individuality. 

The original of Figure 1, reproduced here- 
with, was lettered with a No. 4 round 
"speed ball" pen, and the letters were 1 1-2 
inches in height. 

Choosing Proper Size Pen 

In choosing which pen to use, do not get 
the lettering too heavy, particularly on the 
white cards. A dainty card is much better 



for delicate lines of merchandise than one 
where the heavy, black lines predominate. 

The same should be borne in mind con- 
cerning the designing of price tickets, ex- 
cept where the price Is a bargain special and 
is played up as such. 

Another Important Rule 

One other rule to remember, and we will 
proceed with the show card suggestions. 
That is — it is not best to use all capital let- 
ters in lettering a card. 

The examples shown in this lesson are of 
course lettered with all capital letters to 




Fig. 1 

Fig. 2 

show the style of lettering, but show cards 
so lettered are rather hard to read, and the 
average eye does not follow a capital line 
as readily as lower case. 

Figure 2 is a new idea to many of you 
and if properly colored up makes a very 
effective card. 

Contrasting Colors Are Effective 

The "boxed-in" border should be of Bome 
contrasting color that will stand out from 
the color of your cardboard, and the words 
"SOMETHING NEW" within the border 
should be of a different color, also in con- 
trast to the border. 

Red and green would be a good color com- 
bination, or orange for the border, black 
for the big words, and red or green for the 
lettering that follows underneath. 

Figure 3 is a design that is very effective, 
particularly if carried out In large quanti- 
ties throughout the store or for some sale, 
and used in all the windows. 

The light line inside border, drawn on the 
bias, should be of a color that is in keeping 
with the season. 

Seasonable Designs and Colors 

For a general store, or a dry goods store, 
this colored border should be a purple if the 
season happens to be Spring, or before the 


Easter opening; green for mid Summer, and 

a tan or reddish brown for use in the Fall. 

A dozen or more cards distributed about 

the store with this same design malve a very 


or TftESE, 

SPDCIAU price;3 

Fig. 3 

Strong display, although the wording should 
vary somewhat on each. 

The words "FALL OPENING WEEK," or 
whatever lettering Is desired for the interior 
of the box, might be of a different color, 
other than black. If the border Is purple, 
this lettering could be a pretty shade of 
blue; green and red are good, also tan and 

Figure 4 is a splendid example of how 
striking a simple design can be made. There 
is nothing fancy about this card, but you 

place a series of these within your windows 
or throughout the store and they will attract 
a great amount of attention because through 
their simplicity they are very striking. 

For the Fall season, the words "FALL 
OPENING" might be drawn with brown ink, 
or the words that follow underneath might 
be drawn v.'ith brown or tan ink. 

The originals of these cards were white 
cardboard, about 8x14 inches, which is a 
very good proportion for the average cards 
to be placed in windows. 




Fig. 4 

Larger cards are desirable where only 
one is used, but several cards in a window 
should not be so large that they "overbal- 
ance" the merchandise. 



Showing a New Alphabet That Can Be Made With Either "Broad" Pointed 

Pens or Brush. 

Fig. 1 

This lesson, giving as it does, full instruc- 
tions on how to make one of the prettiest 
alphabets in the whole book, should prove 
useful to our show card writers, and those 
who are searching for a general alphabet for 
all 'round use. 

Figure 2 is what is known as a "com- 
bination" alphabet, and can be made with 
either a broad point lettering pen, profes- 
sionally known as the "Round" Lettering 
Pen, or with a brush. If made with a brush, 
tlie bristles should be kept extremely well 

"chiseled" otherwise the shading of the let- 
ters, that is the contrast between the light 
and heavy lines, will not be well defined. 

This alphabet can also be made with the 
"automatic" lettering pen. 

We are reproducing, in actual size, a pic- 
ture of the various sizes of the broad point 
lettering pens. These may be had at most 
stationery stores, and run in sizes and hair 
sizes, from No. 1 — the largest, down to No. 
6 which is the smallest. (.See Figure 1.) 
How to Order Pens 
When ordering these pens, which fit into 
the ordinary pen holder, be sure and specify 
"ROUND" lettering pens, and it is best to 
order an equal number of "fountains," which 
are small brass "tongues" easily fastened to 
the pen. These "tongues" make it possible 
for the pen to carry much more Ink than 
ordinarily, and are absolutely necessary In 
using the larger sizes of pens. 

There is also on the market a little cup 
arrangement made of aluminum, which at- 
taches to the under side of the pens, and 
this is preferred by many show card writers. 
The pens and fountains are very Inex- 

It also might be explained here that these 
pens are known by many as the "Soen- 
necken" pens, and they are the same style, 
but the "Soennecken," being a German pro- 
duction, has not been on the market for 
some time. 

Use Enameled Cardboard 
Always bear in mind that these pens, 
whatever model you may use, work best 
on enameled cardboard, or anything that 
has a hard, smooth surface. It will take 
much practice, and you must experiment 
with various inks before you can do very 
creditable lettering on rough surfaced stock. 
Those who have practiced the "speed ball" 
alphabets and have thoroughly mastered the 
rudiments and general proportions, will find 
the alphabet. Figure 2, in this lesson, very 
easy to follow. The general principles of 
formation, or characteristics, are exactly the 

Wherever there is a "bow" to the letter, 
keep this in the shape of a circle as nearly 
as possible. Also make the capital "O" and 
the capital "Q" as nearly circular as pos- 

Look back to the lesson showing the 
"lower case," and the capitals of the last 
speed ball alphabet, and you will readily 
note the similarity. 

When to Employ Brushes 
The pens should be used in forming let- 
ters from one-quarter inch in height to those 
about one inch, or perhaps one and one- 
quarter inches in height. After you go 
beyond this height, you should use brushes, 
the size of brush depending on the height 
of the letters, and the "heaviness" of lines 

This alphabet, because of its neatness, is 
much used by card writers for "dainty" 
signs. It is an excellent style for jewelry, 
and all lines of "classy" merchandise, as 
well as for small cards for interior display 
in show cases, etc. 

The show card, shown as Figure 3. is an 
example of simple lettering, and can be 



a b e d e o e/Q 

advance or the outside, or right hand corner 
of the point. 

It is also best to learn to work with the 
right band slightly to the right of the work, 
rather than try to make all letters directly 
in front of you. In other words, the Tore- 
arm should be at an angle, and the elbow 
away from the body. 

How to Practice 

Begin piacticing by making circles, or 
lower case "o's." Do not start the letter at 
the top, but place the pen down a trifle, and 


c ni\)©r^QrQ 

Fig. -I 

made effective by using a different color 
of ink for the last two lines. If all the card 
is lettered in one color, then the smaller 
lines should be lettered with a smaller pen 
than that used for the large lines. 
May Be Used Variously 
Figure i is an idea than can be worked 
in many ways. This style card could be 
drawn with white ink upon black cardboard; 
or silver show card ink could be used upon 
black board, or blue board. This would 


at llveir X>QS'\' 

Fig. 3 

give a very rich appearance, especially If 
the show card were made 14x22 inches, or 

Figure 5 Is easily made, and shows 
that all catch lines, or small lettered lines, 
should be made with a smaller pen, thus 
giving contrast. 

Many beautiful effects can be obtained 
and there is no limit to the coloring combi- 
nations for pen or brush. 

For the Fall season dark reds, yellows, 
and orange are wonderful colors for inks, 
and the cardboards used should be white, 
light yellow, and dark red. Always use an 
ink that will stand out very plainly. 

Final Word 

And now, permit a word of encourage- 

When you first begin using the broad 
pointed pens or round lettering pens, if you 
prefer to call them such, you may experience 
some difficulty in "getting the swing," but 
do not be discouraged. Do not hold the pen 
loo stiffly, but use a limber hand and wrist, 
and keep the pen somewhat on the slope — 
that is do not hold it squarely with the 
heavy line. It will glide much better if the 
left hand corner is kept "ahead" of the right 
hand corner. 

To make this a little clearer: In making 
the downward stroke do not hold the pen 
so that It is traveling squarely and at right 
angles with the stroke, but have the inside 
or "left hand" side of the point slightly in 


Fig. 4 

toward the left of where the top of the let- 
ter should be. Then travel toward the left 
and downward, to a point slightly above and 
to the right of where the exact middle of 
the bottom of the letter should be. 

Now take the pen and go back to thu 
point where you first started — moving the 
pen so that it will make a very light stroke. 
Come slightly upward and to the right with 
this stroke, and gradually form a perfect 
curve. As you reach the exact middle of 
the top of the letter, come downward toward 
the right, forming a perfect curve until the 
line joins the end of the first stroke. 

Practice this movement again, and again, 
and this will soon give you the "swing" of 
the pen. 

The same movement applies to the han- 
dling of the brush for this particular alpha- 

Fig. 5 


This Is One of the Most Useful Alphabets If Properly Mastered— Very De- 
sirable for Large Lines on Show Cards and Cloth Signs. 

The alphabet shown in this lesson is 
known hy most show card and professional 
sign men as the "PLAIN EGYPTIAN." It 
gets .this name from the uniform width ot 
the "strokes," and the similarity of Bome 
of the letters or characters to ancient carv- 
ings found among the ruins of old Egypt. 

All printers, however, and some show 
card writers, refer to this style as "Gothic." 

You can use your judgment in the matter, 
but In referring to this style, when talking 
to your printer, bear in mind that it is 

General Foundation 

In studying a complete course in letter- 
ing, as given in schools and colleges, engi- 
neering classes, etc., this alphabet is used as 
the general foundation for all lettering and 
is one of the first lessons. 

For the average card writer, however, and 

especially for the amateur who has little 
time to practice, it is a difficult alphabet 
to master. Once mastered it will be a great 
help in lettering, and is necessary in show 
card work, also in the lettering of banners, 
cloth signs, streamers, etc., where a large, 
bold letter is desired — even necessary. 

In forming the letters be sure that your 
brush is well chiseled and that it will easily 
form the width of stroke you desire, with- 
out forcing or "aoing over" the second 

How to Operate Brush 

Carry plenty of ink. and hold the brush 
almost perpendicular from the show card. 
Also be sure that you operate the brush 
with the thumb and the second finger— using 
the first or index finger as a sort of guide. 
Follow this plan In your practice and you 
will find that you can make the "curves" 




much easier, and more uniform. Keep the 
fingers and wrist "loose" in forming the 

When you first begin to practice this al- 
phabet you will encounter some discourag- 
ing obstacles, such as forming the letter 
"C", "D", "0", etc., but keep at it. Persist 
in twirling the brush between the thumb 
and the second finger, using the first linger 
to g^iide the brush, and do not grasp the 
brush too low, but just high enough to on- 
able you to "cut the corners" without cramp- 
ing. Those who are fortunate in having long 

Fig. 1 

fingers will find this much easier than the 
person whose h^nd is short, or "blunt." 
Strokes Must Be Uniform 

The first line of strokes as shown in Fig- 
ure 1 is given to show the student the lunda- 
mental strokes. These strokes should be 
practiced until they become easy. The per- 
pendicular strokes are necessary, because 
you MUST learn to keep the strokes uni- 
form, rather than having some lean toward 
the right, and others "slanting" toward the 
left. Straight down is the rule — and perfect 
yourself in this. Then come the "slants" 
which form parts ot the "A", "V" and "W", 
as well as of the "M", "N" and "W". 

The next set of strokes contains the ele- 
ments of the loops of the "B", "P", "R", etc., 
and nuist be made in a uniform manner. 
Next practice the three strokes that form 
the letter "S". 

Further Instruction 

Here you may encounter some trouble, but 
always make the top stroke first, and form 
a neat, regular curve. In coming downward 
on stroke two, move slowly, and after mak- 
ing the front "curve" come as far as possi- 
ble toward the left and turn the wrist. If 
you will do this you can easily finish the 
letter with stroke three. Unless you come 
farther to the left than usual you will find 
your hand in a cramped position in com- 
pleting the last stroke, for the reason that it 
is awkward to bring the brush upward and 
to the left. 

The last figure in the top row is given 


as a make shift in case you should desire 
to letter a card or cloth sign before you can 
give this alphabet much practice, and do it 

If you do not have the time to practice 
you can form the letters by using a Email 
brush for outlines, as shown, and then filling 
in with a larger brush. This is a good plan 
to follow when lettering cloth signs, large 
banners, etc., where a large, single stroke 
brush is out of the question. 
Don't Hurry 

The next four lines in Figure 1 show the 
'"Capitals," and as the strokes are plainly 
numbered, there should be no trouble in 
learning exactly the proper way to make 
the letters. The top of the "A" should be 
about a stroke and half in width, while 
the bottom of the letter "V" should exact- 
ly the single stroke width. The bottom 
points of the "W" should also be single 
stroke in width. 

Take your time in forming the capitals. 
Do not hurry, or get nervous, but make each 
letter perfect, and gradually you will find 
the brush "behaving" as it should and then 
you can pick up speed. 

If forming any of the letters that have 
curves watch both the outside and inside of 
the curve. Keep your eye on the outside of 
the curves that you do not go above or be- 
low the regular height, and if you watch the 
"inside" of the "loops" you will find that 
you can shape them in a much more uniform 
and even manner. 

Practice Makes Perfect 

Don't be discouraged the first few times 
you practice the "C", "D" and "0." It takes 
patience to "get the knack," but after you 
have mastered these strokes, you will reel 
proud of your work. 

The five last letters, following the regular 
capitals, are known as "freak" letters. That 
is, they may be used with this alphabet, but 
they do not conform to the regular outlines. 

If you like the "looks" of these freak let- 
ters, it is permissible to use them, but they 
should be used rather sparingly and then 
only on show cards. They are much out of 
place on large banners, or signs, because it 
is difficult for many persons to read them — • 
and. for that reason, professional show card 
and sign men avoid them as a general rule. 
Some department store card men, when the 
style will permit, use this type of lettering 
on a set of feature cards, but not regularly. 
Now for Figures 

The numerals or "figures" are shown next. 

The numbered strokes should be your 
guide, and a little persistent practice will en- 
able you to make very creditable price cards, 
where bold figures are wanted. 

Keep the "loops" uniform — that is the 
round, circular parts of the figures. For in- 
stance — If you have a price of 35c — the oval 
of the figure 5 should be the same general 
proportion as the lower oval of the figure 3. 
The figure "0" is the same as the Capital 

The lower case letters should be easy for 
those of you who have done a little practic- 
ing with the brush on alphabets shown in 
previous lessons. 

The strokes are much the same, and all 

that is required is to keep the "loops" uni- 
form. The straight up and down strokes — 
straight down is better — are easily made — • 
if you carry sufficient ink in your brush. It 
the tops and bottoms of the strokes do not 
trim evenly — that is if there is a "ragged" 
edge, smooth this off with a cross stroke of 
the brush. 

As IVIakeshift 

For the beginner who desires to letter a 
sign or large banner, without taking suffi- 
cient time to perfect the lower case, the same 
plan can be followed as was suggested for 
a makeshift for the capitals. Take a 
smaller brush, and outline the letters, after 
which they can be easily "filled in." 

The "E.gyptian" series shown here should 
be the foundation for future work, and after 
having mastered this one, you will find that 
brush work will come easy, and you will 
take much more pleasure in doing show 
card work. 

Once you master the brush, the work Is 
really very interesting, and many students 
will spend hours practicing on a few letters. 

That is all there is to show card writing — 

With this alphabet — the same as with the 
others — there is a condensed style, and an 
extended slyle. Always make your letters 
of a height and size that will fit the space. 

Three Styles 

Figure A shows how to form the capitals 
if you desire to use a condensed style; Fig 
ure B is an example of the regular style, 
with the following three lines lettered in a 
"Roman" style. 

Figure C is the extended style, and is very 
attractive if carefully done. 

The show card writer who is going to do 
a large amount of lettering on cloth signs, 
long streamers, etc., should procure a set of 
poster brushes, or flat sign brushes, measur- 
ing from 1-2 to 1 1-2 inches. These brushes 
may be ox hair or camel's hair, and are not 

You can not make large signs with email 
brushes. The letters will not be uniform — 
and it takes too much time. 



"Tricks of the Trade" Explained, and a Few Accessories Suggested ^That 
Every Show Card Writer Should Have. 

"Tricks of the trade" will no doubt be very 
interesting to those who have been studying 
this series on show card writing. 

There are number of "tools" necessary 
besides brushes if you intend to do artistic 
work of a decorative sort, and in this lesson 
we shall give a few hints on what to get. 
and how to operate the various devices. 

If you plan on doing considerable window 
or interior decorating, and have a large 
amount of artificial foliage, flowers, etc., that 
fade out from time to time, you should pur- 
chase an air brush. 

Spray With Brush 

An air brush is in reality a spraying de- 
vice which sprays the ink in a very fine 
spray, and wonderful decorative effects are 
obtained from its use. The air brush, as 

who will gladly send catalogs illustrating 
the various models and accessories. 


The air brush is used largely for "stencil" 
work; that is, work that is "stenciled" or 
cut out for special designs. Such stencils 
may be cut from ordinary tough tag board. 

Fig. 1. 

shown in Figure 1, operates from air pres- 
sure, and can be attached to a carbonic tank, 
or operated from a small air tank. In the 
latter case it is necessary to have a small 
foot pump for pumping into the tank. 

If you use the carbonic or liquid air tank, 
you will need a pressure gauge to regulate 
the pressure, as not more than 15 pounds 
pressure is needed. 

Note the names of advertisers in this book 

This cut .shows a sample of air brush wurk. 

and later rubbed over with linseed oil to 
make them impervious to moisture, or you 
can cut your stencils or "masks" from regu- 
lar stencil board. 

Your printer probably carries the tag 
board in stock, and can get the stencil board 
from any paper house. 

Stencils that are already cut out can oe 
secured from the air brush manufacturers 
at reasonable cost. 

The air brush is also much used for spray- 
ing flowers and foliage, or wherever tbere is 
need for an even distribution of color. 

In the design shown, which is about half 
the regular size, "A" is the hose attachment 
plug; "B" is a color cup which is inter- 
changeable, making it easy to work with 


several colors; "D" is the adjustable "nose", 
and "E" is the air regulator which is usu- 
ally operated by pressing downward with the 
forefinger of the right hand, the brush being 
held in the same hand. 

There are several other models — costing 
less money — which will do good work. 
The Atomizer 

Figure 2 is a reproduction of an ordinary 
atomizer, which may be procured at any 
drug store, and with a little care in operat- 
ing will work much the same as an air brush 
for coarse "spatter" work. An atomizer even 
may be attached to a small air tank by using 
some sort of a clamp for the hose In order 
to shut off the air when necessary. 

Fancy, delicate borders, and other fine 
work should never be attempted with any- 
thing but a good air brush, but heavy bor- 
ders, colored centers, and panels can be 

Fig. 2. 

made very nicely with some of the make- 

In using either the air brush or atomizer 
it is best to secure the regular air brush 
inks, as plain water colors are liable to 

Figure 3 shows another "tool" for stencil- 
ing and spraying. This outfit consists of a 
stiff bristled brush, about the same as used 
for cleaning typewriter type, and a small 
piece of fine wire screen. By saturating the 
brush with air brush ink, or ink that is not 
too thin, and drawing the brush across the 
face of the screen, a very fine "spatter" is 
obtained, which may serve your purpose. 
Practice Perfects 

Practice and experiment with these ideas. 

and you may be able to do some very "fancy" 

Figure 4 shows what is known as a "re- 
lief" outfit, and sometimes called an "air 

'■.. '■>>-■- 


Fig. 3. 

pencil." The latter name however really ap- 
plied to the smaller sizes. 

This outfit consists of the bulb or bellows, 
and the design shown here is about half the 
regular size. 

The bellows are removable, and upon be- 
ing detached from the "nozzle" forms a cup. 
Into this cup your mixture is placed. This 
mixture is about the consistency of thick 
paste, and by squeezing the bulb, the paste 
is forced through the nozzle, forming raised 

letters, borders, or fancy figures as preferred. 
The paste dries rapidly and adheres to the 
surface of the cardboard, or background, and 
when thoroughly dry the letters or borders 
may be tinted any color desired. 

Cost Little 

These outfits are inexpensive, and the 
smaller size is best unless you expect to 
make large borders, raised letters of large 
dimensions, or extensive wreath work. 

Figure 5 is a pantagraph. This device Is 
composed of four arms about 20 inches long, 
and used for the enlarging of pictures or 
drawings — also for the reduction in size of 
pictures or drawings — as preferred. 

The arms are perforated at equal distances 
and each hole is numbered. Small screw eyes 
are Inserted at the proper enlargement or re- 
duction scale figure — and by tracing the 

Fig. 4. 

Pig. 5. 

original drawing with one arm, the other 
arm either reduces or enlarges, as desired. 

Pantagraphs are much used by artists and 
commercial designers. It is possible to get 
the outline and dimensions of a figure very 
rapidly, and accurately. The cost is very 

To Produce Unique Designs 

These "tools" will aid any show card 
writer and decorator in doing good work. 
With a little ingenuity, many unique desigAs 
may be brought out at little expense. 

On the following pages will be found a 
number of additional alphabets, from which 
you may choose from time to time — when jn 
search of something new. 


(See following two pages) 




12 34 5 6Z590 Condensed 

Condensed Single Stroke "Roman' 

OL t> o d ^f^ tvj 
<jK^ trcvfvo_p eg: 

©Of 25f-ag ©oe 

Extended Single Stroke ■•Roman" .^Jb^m 



1234567690 Condense 

Condensed ''Egyptian" or Gothic 




Extended "Egyptian" or Gothic 


A Chapter on Advertising 

Retail Merchants Must Learn to Use the Right Kind of Advertising and the Following Pages 
Demonstrate the Right Way to Prepare Trade Pulling Publicity. 

First of all — real advertising is INFOR- 

And secondly — your advertising should 
play up the usefulness and desirability of 
your merchandise. 

The purpose of your advertising should 
be to sell goods — at least to help you sell 
goods — and make your sales come that much 
easier. If you have a customer convinced 
or partially convinced that they want some- 
thing — even before they enter your store — 
that sale is made with less time and more 
satisfaction than would otherwise be the 

Use advertising space — then — with this 
idea In view. 

Plan your year's advertising campaign as 
carefully and thoughtfully as you do your 
other expenditures. Decide upon so much 
money — and portion this out according to 
months — always trying to keep a little bit 
under your schedule, in order that you may 
push business a little harder if there should 
come a lull at some unexpected time. 

If you are in the general store business — 
plan on spending not less than one and one- 
half per cent of your gross. Many mer- 
chants are spending as high as two and one- 
half per cent. At least spend enough so that 
you dominate the situation. 

Exclusive grocery stores should spend not 
less than 2 per cent; Clothing stores 2 to 4 
per cent; Exclusive Shoe Stores 2 to 5 per 
cent; and Hardware stores 2 to 4 per cent. 

Limit your advertising not only to news- 
papers, but include personal letters, folders, 
circulars, etc... at certain intervals. Have a 
well kept mailing list, and frequently re- 
vise this. Personal letters will do wonders 
in maintaining a friendly feeling, and the 
average retailer does not send out nearly as 
many as he should. In fact the average re- 
tailer has a very poor mailing list. 

In towns where there is no newspaper, the 
merchants must resort to circulars, bills, 
and store papers. Many successful store pa- 
pers are being published throughout the 
Northwest, and a number of these even go 
so far as to cover the local happenings of 
their locality in news style. 

Personal letters will also assist the retail- 
er who finds himself without a newspaper. 

And always bear in mind that information 
is what the people want. Tell your custo- 
mers all you can about your merchandise, 
and emphasize all the good points you can 
think of. Never forget the fact that you 
are in direct competition with the keenest 
merchandising and advertising brains in the 

On the other hand — remember — you are 
on the ground — you know your people — you 
know your merchandise — or should know it 
— and you know that people like to see and 
handle the merchandise before they buy it. 

There can be no better, stronger argument 
put forth in favor of the proper preparation 
of advertising copy than to watch the col- 
umns of the average country weekly news- 
paper, and many of the smaller dailies as 
well, and note the absolute lack of advertis- 
ing information concerning the merchandise. 

The woman residing in the country finds 
it impossible to order from the local mer- 
chant's advertising, even though she so de- 
sires, because the advertising tells nothing. 

Not only does the average store advertis- 
ing lack information but there is a lack of 
continuity — and an almost total absence of 
any plan of action. An advertisement is run 
one week, or the same advertisement may be 
run for two or more weeks, then there will 
be nothing in the paper, and so on through- 
out the year. 

Your advertising must be consistent — and 
you must have a program to follow. A well 
laid out plan for every week, and every 
month. Know this month what you are go- 
ing to do next month. 

A recent canvass of country newspapers, 
and not all of these were from the small 
towns, showed the following startling facts: 

In 40 of these newspapers there were less 
than an average of three retail advertise- 

In 5 of the newspapers there were no re- 
tail ads. 

In 10 of the papers there was only one re- 
tail advertisement. 

In 14 papers there were two retail adver- 
tisements to each paper. 

And in only 11 of these newspapers were 
there more than two. 

And this was just previous to the spring 
season when every retailer should have been 
going after business. 

Is it any wonder that catalog houses and 
chain stores are growing fat. when there is 
such laxity among retailers! 

And this slip-shod method of advertising 
and lack of Information concerning merchan- 
dise applies not only to newspaper adver- 
tising, but to literature of every description 
prepared and sent out by the average local 
merchant. Advertising matter of this sort 
does not get down to "brass tacks." 

There are too many generalties — and this 
is NOT advertising. 

Money ancnt on advertising that docs not 
tell the story about the merchandise and 
create a desire in the reader's mind, is so 
much )noney toasted. 

A. Fair Sample 

Note carefully the advertisement repro- 
duced and marked Fig. 1. The heading is 
excellent, but there the advertisement's use- 
fulness ends. It does not mention materials 
except in the general term of "wash fabrics" 
which may mean calico, gingham, percale. 

voiles, and a host of other materials. The 
advertisement says nothing about colors, 
and color-combinations, nor about figures. 
Would any woman know from reading the 
advertisement just WHAT the merchant 

Compare this advertisement with the 
pages of any retail mail order catalog on 
which similar goods are featured. Note the 
descriptions of the various catalog items — 
they tell all that a woman would want to 
know, and many of the pictures are repro- 
duced in colors. Which piece of advertising 
is going to sell the merchandise? 
Fig. 2 Shows Misfit Copy 

The same fault is to be found in Figure 
No. 2, as with Figure 1. This advertisement 
carries a cravat illustration, and the large 
display lines ask a most ridiculous question. 
There is no information — only the lack of 
it. Compare this with your mail order cata- 
log also. 

Advertising which carries descriptive, in- 
formative copy will sell merchandise, and 
is just as necessary as the merchandise it- 
self, the store, the show windows, or the 

Greater of Sales 

Advertising creates sales. In the country, 
in the towns and cities, people have learned 
to purchase through the reading of adver- 
tisements, whether in the local paper, the 
magazines of national circulation, or 
through the mail order house catalog. The 
merchant who advertises something worth 
while, and makes his advertising interest- 
ing is sure to secure returns. 

People are waiting, everywhere, to be in- 
vited to buy something — and it is only neces- 
sary for the merchant to tell them what he 
has, in a most attractive manner, and the 
public responds. 

Many retail merchants make excuses. 
Some say they "havn't the time" — others 
complain that they "can't write a good ad- 

Well, all these excuses have been worn 
thread-bare. The merchant who really wants 
to do a thing, will find some way of doing 

Merely Matter of Common Sense 

Advertising is not the mysterious force 
that many have been led to believe. It isn't 
a science that is hard to master or difficult 
to understand, as applied to the average re- 
tail store. Far too many merchants believe 
that to prepare good advertising copy one 
must be able to write in a Shakespearean 
style, to fly above the clouds in a superior 
rhetorical fiight or pursue a line of "com- 
edy," but such is not the case. 

The successful advertising of today is the 
simple, outspoken story of the merchandise, 
written in the plainest English, giving gen- 



Mid-Summer showing of 
Seasonable Merchandise 

Our Wash Goods tables are filled with' 
dainty weaves in the latest colors that are 
now being worn. The great demand for 
Wash Fabrics this season is no doubt due 
to the beauty of many of the patterns as 
well as the improved quahty of the 


This i"> a^ c■^|^ella^t 
^lrou^p■> the ihtppe')t 
"j tSe rP4(if r, f^uf 

hr\pF<iK<.r.t did hot 
yo/low \Ni)K ■>j>eojic 
iteiTiS whii-S wDui'l 
N4ve led To rnihy 

We are showing more beautiful de- 
signs than in former y ears at prices 
Always th e lowesj 

JoKi\ Smith ^Co. 


A mere i'itpjnml 
Vvi1Koi;t ^nin<^ppKPi ' 

■5usy)ic;«r\ i^ IKproitui 
oj^'flxe I'nder. 


Fig. 1. Merely a general statement with little to arouse interest in the mind of the 
woman reader. Advertising of this type has no chance along side thta of the retail mail 
order house, and large department stores of the big cities. 

nine descriptions in detail as you would 
write or talk to a customer. 

In short — advertising copy must be in- 
formative — answer the questions that the 
purchaser wants to Itnow — and then CREATE 
a genuine desire for that merchandise. Make 
the reader WANT the merchandise. Then 
your advertising will begin to show results. 

Thus it is that in many communities we 
find merchants who are successful com- 
petitors with the large catalog houses, be- 
cause, as stated before, modern advertising 
creates — actually creates, thousands of dol- 
lars worth of new business. 

The merchant who Is awake to the num- 
berless possibilities of advertising is con- 
stantly making suggestions that lead to new 
purchases — when but for the timely sug- 
gestion the sale would have been unmade. 

Why Small Town Merchant Must Advertise 

In addition to the favorable sentiment 
among your patrons that real, constructive 
advertising creates, there is the love of the 
public to be with a winner. The public is 
usually slow in giving its patronage to a 
losing proposition — to a man — or concern 
that seems to be getting behind the times. 

Then again, advertising is necessary from 
another angle — considered from the buying 
habits of the rural communities. 

The people of the agricultural commun- 
ities admire the merchant who goes after 
their business in the proper spirit — who 
really invites them to his store. These coun- 
try people are susceptible to advertising. 

They get hundreds of folders, catalogs, and 
letters in their mail from outside concerns, 
and they have learned to read and KNOW 
good advertising. 

Consumers Distance Retailers in Many 

The country people are no longer "Rubes." 
In many communities they have passed the 
merchant in their modern desires, and they 

trade where they can secure the things they 
have learned are up-to-the-minute. 

The automobile has made it possible to 
the average farmer, or town resident, to 
widen his radius of observation, and people 
from these sections are now visiting the lar- 
ger cities frequently. Here they come in 
contact with all that new in store appear- 
ance, new merchandise, and store service, 
and when they return home, they, too, judge 
their local merchant by the high standards 
they have learned to recognize as possible. 

So, at the very beginning for the benefit of 
the merchants who really desire to strength- 
en their advertising, permit this rule to be 
a fundamental principle — THAT A MERE 
MENT. This applies to all advertisements 
that are Intended to sell merchandise direct- 
ly from the advertisement. 

John Smith, the dry goods merchant, re- 
ceives a shipment of silk waists and In his 
weekly announcement he advertises thusly: 





This is not an advertisement in the strict 
sense of the word, except that it might 
arouse curiosity — and the merchant's money 
is practically wasted as far as direct sales 
are concerned; because such a weak, gen- 
eral announcement will sell very little mer- 
chandise in this advanced age. 

Had John Smith made mention in detail 
of the materials, told of the colors, then the 
styles, and added a touch of human appeal 
by saying they were so moderately priced 
that many women would want two or more 
■ — and close by reassuring the women that 
he had the sizes — he would have had half 
the waists sold before the women even 
reached the store. In other words, his ad- 
vertisement would have brought the women 
to the store for that particular item. 

Fig. 2. An adverti.senu-iit wliirh means little and has no selling power whatever. It 
sliould have been either a i-ravat or a raincoat ad, with descriptive matter u.sed and prices 
named on specific items. 




Every display advertisement to be suc- 
cessful must do four things, and the mer- 
chants who desire to make their advertise- 
ments 100 per cent effective should enlarge- 
the following outline and hang it in plain 
sight upon their desks. 

Your Advertisement Must Do These Four 

Appearance — Heading. 
Striking Illustrations. 
Signature (Special Cut). 

Enthusiastic, Sensible Introduction. 
Announcing New Merchandise. 
Extraordinary Prices. 
Lively Sub-headings. 

Complete Descriptive Matter. 
Informative or Argumentive Copy. 

Bringing the Customer to the Store. 
Ordering by Phone or Mail. 
Clipping Coupon. 
Sending for Catalog. 

Fig. 3. 

Now to analyze the various steps. 

Your advertisement must not only attract 
attention, but it must be favorable atten- 
tion. This is why it is so important that 
you should follow the same general style of 
display from time to time, and have the 
typographical appearance of your advertise- 
ments in keeping with the merchandise. 

A crowded, smeary advertisement, set in 
bold, black "Gothic" type will never sell 
dainty merchandise. Let the blacksmith, 
the hardware man, and the implement deal- 
er use the bold type, except in the case of 
large headings for big sales. Therefore the 
appearance of your advertisements is highly 

The Heading 

This should tell something of the mer- 
chandise if possible, and give the reader a 


That the greatest difficulty which a mer- 
chant, and particularly a clothing merchant, 
haB to face is that of getting merchandise of 
the khrd be wants when he wants it. 

We have just received a few 

Young Men's 


In- the popular waist seam- models. JJ'-*"' 
prevailing (Jncertainttf of •^•' 

FMg. No. 4. 

clue of what follows. It should be relative, 
and never non-sensical — never negative. To 
illustrate — two headings are given here: 

Figure 4 is absolutely irrelative, and 
might apply to anything. Certainly it 

Clothes to Keep 
Men Cool 

Keeping cool is a problem during hot summer days. 
But there's a way of doing it. Wear 


They are light, crisp, and coo!--niade tohriiifi real com- 
fort when tlie heat weighs you down. ,\ir-0-Wehves 
are made to look as well as they feel. The House of 
''nnuenheimer makes them— all the taii^-;".^ "'■;" ' 

Fig. 5 

doesn't carry an appeal to the man who is 
looking for a summer suit. 

Note the appeal in Fig. 5. The heading 
attracts you at once, and Invites you to read 
the entire advertisement. This shows why 
every meichant should be careful in the 
preparation of headings for his advertise- 
ments. Bear in mind that your advertise- 
ment is in competition with other advertise- 
ments, in the same paper, or from other 
near-by towns; and a weak, irrelevant head- 
ing may lose a sale. Attract the reader at 

Straw Hats 

A bunch lot, lOc up. children's and 

Mothers, attention. We have an- 
other big lot of those Unionatls for the 
kidlets, size 4 to 12. They have proven 
big sellers as they are the most sensible 
garment every sold for the purpose. 

New Line ©f Buttons, hundreds of 

New Beads in coral red, black and 
amber. They are the rage all over. 

A fine line of House Dresses and 
Aprons, stylishly made, all all rick rack 
trimmed, full size, couldn't be made any 
better, $1 75 to $2.50. 

Middies. Middies 

Very scarce, but we picked up a lot 
of Misses' and Children's, $1.49 to $2.50, 
easily worth double the price. Well 
made, in red and blue contrast. 

100 yds of Towel Crash, 12Lc. 

Twelve pieces of Wash Goods, short 
pieces of our best spring styles, Half 
Price as long, as they last. 

Five pieces 22c Percale 15c. Per- 
cale is now 16c wholesale. 

Beautiful Lawn Waists, very sheer, 
contrast pink and baby blue, easily worth 
$2.50, Sale Price $1.98. 

See the fine Georgette Waists at 
$5.00 to $10.00, the best ever shown 

^^^^' _..^.Acc* Win I* 

Fig. 6 

once and hold his attention until he has 
read your entire advertisemnt. 

Illustrations are also very important, and 
the proper cut takes an advertisement out 
of the ordinary, while a poor illustration is 
worse than none. Whatever your line of 
business have an abundance of good cuts 
of everything you may wish to advertise. 
Special Signature 

Then comes the signature. If you would 
add individually to your advertisement 


Smart and exclusive styles— all new colors 
in velour, Duvefyne, Bolivia. Iricotine and 
silk. Regular $45.00 to $200.00. 


Semi-tailored and fancy styles in series, 
tweeds and trieotine of the season s fash- 

ionable colors. Regula 
$57.50 to $65.00. for 



An assortment of waists in voile, Jap silk 
and crepe de chine. Exceptional values. 
Specially priced ^ O *) S 

at ....._ _ ^t3 ti£^ 


In crepe de chine and Jap silk, embroider- 
ed and trimmed with laces. Regularly 
priced $5.00 to $14.50. For 

$375.0 $10,90 

Fig. 7 

have a striking name plate made, and al- 
ways use it. Then it is easy for the read- 
ers of the paper to recognize your name. 
If you do not have your own signature — 
your name may be set in one kind of type 
this week, and next week the printer will 
use the same face of type in setting up your 
competitor's name, and your name will be 
set in something else. This is why the big 
city stores have individual signatures — they 
become trade-marks in a way — and serve 
to make the advertisements stand out from 
all the others. 

Arouse Reader Interest 

The second step in advertising is to 
"Arouse the Reader's Interest." 

To carry the reader from the heading in- 
to the body of your advertisement you 
should use all the enthusiasm you possess 
in writing a sensible introduction, particu- 
larly if the advertisement is a large one. 
Never attempt to enumerate any number of 
items at reduced prices, or to hold a spe- 
cial sale without giving the reader some log- 
ical reason for it. 

Also in the advertisements of the arrival 
of new merchandise, be enthusiastic, tell 
your people what big things you have pre- 


pared for them — and then carry them 
through the numerous items by lively sub- 
headings. Don't mix up various unallied 
items in long columns that are difBcult to 
read. Make it easy for the readers to pick 
out the items in which they may be in- 

Illustration No. 6 shows the wrong way 
to arrange any quantity of merchandise. 
The headings are misleading, and are fol- 
lowed by a hodge-podge arrangement of 
items of every description that are hard to 
find, difficult to read, and the prices should 
be displayed at the end of the lines where 
they will show up. 

On the contrary Fig. 7 shows a splendid 
way in which to arrange merchandise. Note 
how the headings aid the eye in locating the 
particular item in which you may be inter- 
ested: then follow the tempting descrip- 
tions, and the price which is displayed at 
the end of the line is in a size that indi- 
cates its importance. 

Create Desire 

The third step of the advertisement is to 
"Create Desire." This you must do by go- 
ing into details about the merchandise. Al- 
ways remember that the higher the price, 
the more detail is necessary. You can de- 
scribe a 10c article in very few words, but 
before a woman spends f75 for a new coat. 

Temper the Heat 


Cool Underwear 

There is a world of relief and com- 
fort these hot days in wearing knee length 
athletic type underwear. 

It certainly helps to take the sizzle 
oiit of summer heat. 

We have splendid Hot weather gar- 
ments In unexcelled varieties. Both Un- 
ion Suits and Two Piece Wear can be had 
in SulUble Material!. 

Come in toda^ and lookoverour com- 
plete line of Summer-Underclothing. The 
kind you want is here at the price >^>u 
want to pay. 

Phone 17 for your Grocery order. 

Fig. S 

or a man $50 for a new suit, they want to 
know something about the merchandise. 

Thus it is that complete descrii)tive copy, 
that really informs, is necessary. 

Study Fig. 8. Note the complete lack of 
information in this advertisement. It is a 
mere mention of items, and carries no de- 
scriptive or informafive copy. It is impos- 
sible for the reader to form any opinion of 
the goods mentioned, and such copy tails 
utterly to create any desire. 

Fig. 9 on the other hand is a spleiuiid .'x- 

ample of informative copy, that really cre- 
ates a desire, and at the same time tells the 
price. The reader could order by phone or 
letter from this advertisement, while in 
Fig. 8 this would be absolutely impossible. 
And note, also that Fig. 9 occupies the came 
space as Fig. 8. One will sell merchandise, 
the other is money wasted. 

If you write your copy carefully and take 
plenty of time in working out the various 
steps, you have led the reader to the point 
where he is ready to purchase. 

Closing the Sale 

If your advertisements bring people into 
your store to purchase the merchandise — 


of real bargain. The larger the price figures, 
the bigger the bargain— in the mind of the 
average reader. 

Priced $1.29 to $3.95 


"UNE BRIDES aie nor the only temininM who pauK in rapt adrajratiof) o( 
jiiful exhibit o( hngetie these summery days. The aiJdcd inleiest which 
Hudiofi'i Bay Quahiy altachct a tciponiible u much ai anything tot the un- 
uiual attiactivcneu of these display) 

—Then there are the styles lo think about and the finicky charming trimmings 
and what not. 

— Envelope ■ombmaliom ate cxquUilt in fint quo/r/Jr bopUile, nain- 
iook and Voile. Somi: aic enibroideicd, olhen have lace i/ol(c^ or 
Inmmings. Eithct lite linltd Hah or u-htle. All lizey 




—WOMEN'S FINE silk lulc ho,_«»nilt». 

wiih lemforccd httii and Iocs and garlet lop. 

WLile only. S.z« 8iA lo 10 


$1 25 

-WOMEN'S EXTRA qu.U, ,,11 how— «> ,.. 

colleni slocking lot ical haid weai 
—Of puie ihicad silk, m fancy unpc cllecis PUin 
colon ace while, pink, sky and biown All sKC*. 



-FINE SWISS wiih p.coi cd;,. Tht 

mosl populai neck hung for Summer dreasct. 

Colois shown are pink, sky and maice 

—Also ninon in plain or scalloped edges, in na»>. 

victoiy red, "blue, sand and while 

then your advertisements are successful. 
But you must not be satisfied by a mere 
sprinkling of customers — particularly If you 
have published a large advertisement. There 
must be stimulated trade — a ready response 
— and you should be satisfied with nothing 

Do not try to prepare advertisements on 
the spur of the moment. Select your mer- 
chandise carefully — and prepare your copy 
in advance. In each advertisement — have 
something that will stand out as a feature. 

At the same time, it isn't necessary that 
every advertisement should be a bargain 
advertisement. There are two ways in 
which to prepare copy that will bring trade. 

One is the quality appeal, in which you 
play up the quality and arouse a desire for 
something better in the minds of the reader, 
and the price may he subordinated — or made 
a secondary matter. 

The other method is to play up the price. 
When you use the price appeal, feature the 
price in type large enough to carry the idea 



For the benefit of merchants and advertis- 
ing writers, who are unfamiliar with type 
faces, there are reproduced here a number 
of commonly used "faces". 

Familiarity with type is necessary if you 
desire to plan good looking advertisments 
and these elements are therefore included 
under the heading of "fundamentals." 

Every merchant, or whoever is writing 
the store advertisements should know just 
what equipment your printer has; such a 
knowledge will be a great aid in writing 
large display headings and sub-headings. 

Type is measured by what is known as 
the "point system." In brief — a "point" is 
1-72 of an inch. In other words, 72-pt. type 
is one-inch in height, and 36-point type is 
one-half inch in height of printing face — al- 
lowing a trifle for the "shoulder" or cut-off. 
This refers to the capitals, lower case let- 
ters being on the average one-half the height 
of capitals. 

In estimating how much space a given 
amount of copy will occupy, use this rule: 

A newspaper column is usually 13 ems 
wide — and an "em" is 12 points as usually 
spoken of. Therefore a 13-em column is 2 
and 1-6 inches wide. 

If you set your copy in 8-pt., which 
is this size type, estimate six words 
to the line, and 8 lines to the inch. 
Allow for all headings, and large 

If you .set your copy iu 10-pt., 
which is this size type, count five 
words to the line, and 7 lines to 
the inch. 

If you .set your copy in 12- 
pt., which is thi.s size type, 
count four words to the line, 
and six lines to the inch. 

It is best, however, to set 12-pt. 
type ill a line at least 15 ems wide, 
same measure as shov.ii here, and 
for every three ems additional 
Avidth, add one word to the line. 

The following letters are set in a single 
line to demonstrate the various sizes of 
type. Note that the large "A" is 72-point, 
and so on down to 12-point. In addition 
to the regular "faces" there are also styles 
known as the "Condensed" and "ExtendeiL" 
Your printer will be glad to explain these to 





38 '24 IS 12 




In addition to a woricing knowledge of 
type, every merchant and every writer of 
advertising should know something about 
the different "cuts" that are used and also 
how to arrange copy so that the printer will 
know and understand what you have in 

For all practical purposes — there are two 
styles of "cuts" used in most newspaper 
offices— the Half Tone and the Zinc Etch- 

Fig. 1 shows what is meant by the "Halt- 
Tone." Cuts with what is known as "photo- 
graphic faces" are usually made from photo- 
graphs and wash drawings. If you will ex- 
amine the surface under a microscope you 
will find it composed of a series o£ "dots" 
which print heavy or light as the cut must 
show the dark and light of a photograph. 

sensitized plate, when the exposure is made. 

For coarse printing, newspaper work, etc., 
a 65-line or 85-line screen is used. This 
means that there are 65 lines or 85 lines to 
the inch running two ways across the sur- 
face, or in other words 65x65 or about 4,000 
small dots to a square inch. 

For high-grade printing, especially on en- 
ameled papers, finely screened copper half 
tones are used of 225 screen — or finer. 

"Zinc Etching" is the name usually ap- 
plied to the cut made from a line drawing — 

These dots are necessary in printing, and 
are formed from what is known as a "screen" 
when the engraver exposes his plate for the 
making of the cut. 

This "screen" is a finely ruled glass with 
a large number of lines running across its 
face. This is placed before the engraver's 

or pen and ink drawing. These cuts print 
from black lines — in duplication of the 
original drawings, and differ from the half 
tones in this respect. Zinc etchings of which 
Fig. B is an example, are most satisfactory 
where small cuts are used and where there 
is considerable detail to be shown. 

Small cuts of shoes, small hardware cuts, 
etc., should be zinc etchings if space is to be 
conserved and the best results obtained. 

The next step is how to properly mark 
your copy, and this is a simple matter, 
provided you have an understanding with 
your printer. If you find he has an idea or 
plan which is better for you to follow — use 
the method that will prove mutually agree- 
able and satisfactory. 

Department store advertising is planned 
in the office of the advertising manager, 
and carefully laid out before it is sent to 
the printer. The copy is edited and marked, 
so that the printer may know just what to 
do. If you expect well displayed advertise- 
ments — follow this plan insofar as you are 
able. If necessary call in your printer and 
ask him to assist you — work with him. 

We will suppose that you have a simple 
list of prices in your advertisement that you 
wish set in small space, and you desire the 

prices in what is known as "1-line" bold 
face type. For this you would mark your 
copy as shown in Fig. C. 

Beef Blrloln, T-bone or round BtcaJi, pound 50^ 

pot roast beef, pound .1B< 

Lean boiling .beef , pound ,16< 

Rib boiling feef, poimd I3j^ 

HeaT7 Teal, fancy Teal round etealc or veal chope, pound30^ 

Veal shoulder roaat, pound .50^ 

Veal stew, pound .15^ 

Fig. C 

You will notice that in Fig C there is one 
bold line drawn underneath the price. This 
one line of underscoring means that the 
price is to be bold face, and the printer sets 
up the copy that way and the result is 
shown in Fig. D. 

Beef sirloin, T-bone or round 
steak, pound 30c 

Pot roast beef, pound . . . .18c 

Lean boiling beef, poimd..l5c 

Rib boiling beef, pound. .I2V2C 

Heavy veal, fancy veal round 
steak or veal chops, pound. .30c 

Veal shoulder roast, pound. 20c 
Veal stew, pound ........ 15c 

Fig. D 

The underscoring of prices is simple, but 
means much. One line underscore means 
BOLD FACE PRICE in same or about same 
size type. 

TWO LINES of undescore means that you 
wish the price set in type equal to about two 
lines of the body, or descriptive matter. 

THREE LINES of underscore signifies 
that a 3-Iine price is to be inserted, and so 

Another illustration of single line under- 
scoring is given in Fig. E to show how to 
mark copy when you write the name of the 
item first, and desire this in bold type in 
addition to the price. 

— Heinz Tomato Ca taup , July sale, per bottle, 25jf and 40 ^. 

— Coffee^ freslily roasted. July sale, per lb. 3V. 
— - Tea, Hudson' s Bay bulk, July eale, 3 lbs, $ 1.49. 

— Cocoa, buUc, finest quality, July sale, per lb. 33^. 
-«. Pxire Ca ne Sugar. Lantlo brand, 6 lb. pkga. 63^ . 

Fig. B 

When Fig. E is set up in type it will ap- 
pear as shown in Fig. F. 

— Heinz Tomato Catsup, July 
sale, per bottle, 25c and 40c, 

— Coffee, freshly roasted, July- 
sale, per lb. 37c. 

— Tea, Hudson's Bay bulk, July 
sale, 3 lbs. $1.49. 

— Cocoa, bulk, finest quality, 
July sale, per lb. 33$. 

— Pure Can-e Sugar, Lantic 
brand, 5 lb. pkgs. 63c. 

Fig. F 

When you have small copy (that is copy 
of very few lines), but desire the prices in 
two-line type, mark your copy as shown in 
Fig. G. 


T. B. Y . IlakeoyTjaotogeB fjjr .J6|^ 

g^l B^ln S^"? tottHa for" t|^ 

^/Bo^'p^^^e^'^^'^ree packa£e -J^ 

Fig. G 

This class of copy should be set in narrow 
measure, and when in type will resemble 
Fig. H. 

V. R. V. FLAKBS— 9R(. 

2 packases for fcww 

BLUING— 25i; 

2 bottles for **"• 


Large packaee fcww 

Fig. H 

When you believe that a large price is 
necessary — mark your copy for a three-line 
price as shown in Mg. I. 

liuslln Pe tticoat s 
Good quality T.hlte uuelin - wide flouncee 
daintily trimmed with lace and embroidery .. 96^ 

Fig. I 

This when set up will show as in Fig. K. 

Muslin Petticoats 

Good quality white muslin — 
wide flounces daintily trim- 
med with 
lace and 

uainiiiv trim- 


Fig. K 

This will take care of the mechanical 
details and enable you to work understand- 



Getting the "copy" together seems to be 
a stumbling block for many merchants — yet 
this is one of the simplest things imaginable 
— if it is done right. 

Go through your stocks carefully — ask the 
salespeople to assist you — and find out what 
should be moving. Also include in your ad- 
vertisements such merchandise that may be 
among the new arrivals — it the season is 

Take the time to write attractive descrip- 
tions of your goods, and explain the merits 
sufficiently so that there will be nothing for 
the prospective purchaser to guess about. 

When you have gone through your stock 
carefully you should have a pretty good idea 
of what should be advertised. 

Now take your copy, and decide upon a 
plan of layout. That is — decide on just 
what you want to "play-up" or feature — and 
decide on how much space the important 
items should take. This will give you a gen- 
eral plan for your advertisement, and you 
can arrange the other items as space will 

Always have a plan in mind when you 
"build" your advertisements, just as though 

you were going to build a house. If you feel 
that you cannot do this alone, ask the assist- 
ance of the printer. 

There is a fundamental principle in ad- 
vertising— and that is — "THE GREATER 

And a merchant should never under ordi- 
nary conditions attempt to prepare an ad- 

vertisement hurriedly, and rush the copy to 
the printer at the last minute. 

For writing your copy use cheap "print," 
cut about 9x12 inches. The reason for this 
is that it is handy for the printer, and can be 
readily handled upon the linotype. DO NOT 

The word "lay-out" means that you should 
have prepared by your printer blank sheets 
the size of your newspaper page, and marked 
off in columns and inches, or you can do this 

^^^^ Cl earan ce Salgs 


Hosiery & Underwear 

WOMEN'S SILK HOSE— Mode seHmlov 
with thread silk boot and cotton top, Ihi 
colon are black. gre» and cordov 
regular $1-35 Talue, 
special at 

WOME-N'S COTTON BOSB— In bbtk, Brry ad cwdovin, 
#ole and hich splicnJ b»l, apecioLIy priced lot Ihit 


&E.KLf^AI. f^i:<CHflNDl5£ 


Isydow'D collar, 3 shirl cut 
body, our regular SI 35 valu( 
specially priced for Ihii ssif 


iVl.tME>'S LISLE \ 

Sl>— A ( 

triitd II 

in, out rcfTjlm- Mc 
CHILDBEN'S HOSE— A fine ribbed mltoB 
itMkinc, Id bUck of vbiK. 29C 

Id 4t, mida with Uc( kD«. TCc 49 C 

.^M. 25c 


65c »»la«. Imiltd quamily, ' 
tb(T iMt. ipKi"! "' 


■I'lTS— Brimlmr 

• 45c 


Cl«ar*nc* SaU 


Sport Hats 


Navy and white, tailored 
and trimmed stjies. §5 
and $6 values. 


Panama Sport Hal^^^jTX 

: 98c 



-All- G m„nlhi In E ycr. - 

."" 98c 




BOGEftS 18); OLD 

m: TEA spoon: 



\ \U1 KMVES 


UANDLEU Sltrtmc 


Morning Specials 

On SbI( 'III! 1 o'clock 

White Middles 


Apron Seta 


69c Waists 69c 



Brltfs Ammonia 


5c Toilet Paper 




MEN'S DRESS SHIKTS—Made of tast cotor percale with ' 

soft turn back cuffs, large range of patteniH to select from. { 

fliies lo n. values to J2.00, specially 4 ^E j 

prKf.i lit - A B^ J \ 


|1«VM. IpKllll)' 4 OC J 

MEN'S UNION s'liits^AtWclif ityli, 

- - "" 7Sc ' 

Continuing Our 

Semi - Annual Clearance Sale 

Women's & Children's Garments 

rKenominal Kt-duetiuns Oflerfd on 
Suits, Coals, Ureses and Skirts 
dozens of cool summery at* lea for women or mibses. 
ruffles, tunics or wide belts, reduced t<i 

A CSearance of Waists •; 

SI IJ \OILE WAISTS — An excellent nssorlm 

mera models. There are plain, flffured and 7Cft(f* ' 

»lrip*d palterna. specially priced al ■ S'C 

S2.98 FINE WAISTS , G«orB«(ie WAISTS. 

o[ novelty voile and beautiful models, 

tine lawn, verr un- beaded or embroidsr. / (ig 

usual models. coUarj cd or daintily tucked / W? 

and caffs of all while with frills. They J T- .. 

ur daintily tinted ; come in all (he pretty 

linen and pique, ape- | summer colors and) 

cially priced for this are umiaual valuf- 

Notion Ciearance (l 



Reduced '(, 'i and i, From TKelr 

Ori«innl Prices. 
S;t!l.:iO Coat*. Suitv. Dresses S-9-75 
Sr. CoaU Suits, llre^^cs §19.75 
Sr;.r>0 Coats. Silk Drevsei S11.50 
5* 'TJ Coats. Capev, Dolmans S9 H7 
C ildren's Coats, at '/, and 'j Off 

Regular Price :« 


Silk Poplin Skirts s?:^";'5r?E¥* $3.98 

Reduced to . . . 

Black and colored, satins and talTeta-t, 
few crepf de chcnes, good assortment 
of slylf' tailored or trimmed, our 
rcfrular ^.7.50 values, apccially |iriied 

% A Clearance 

of Housefurnishtngs l Soniflief SllflCS, POIUPS & 

up: i.K vthfr and 

V. hUt ' ;inias Lace Shoe", values 
ii[, to ;;. B to E, 3 to B. apecinlly 

;: ■■" "■'■ "'•■ 3.35 

Ankle Slrop. low he 

Cnnvos Oxfords and Shoes, ^izea 
:i (<>>l. special tor this ^ O^k 
vuile, at . .... Ab79 

S»n<liils and Uxlords. OC«« 
bpivi.lI ;tl . . 991* 

,M,n> nnd Women's Velour Leather 
Silk- llniinr Slipper", Silcs i up to 
II. f.p.:.mliy pric.M. AgC 

1.50 I - 2.69 

8. B to E. spccialb 

52. Si.5("andS3^0OMUITECAM AS 
Lace Shoes and Hit'ti llrnili- 
Tennis Shoes and 4 JitZ 

Oxfords, special at . i«"*0 

fords. specLal « ilC 

at 1.95 and . .. X B**^ 

Children's an'l MisKea' Clippers; 
tan and while M«ry Jiine«, ^(>ccial- 
ly priced for this sale, 7ttrf* 

54.81 and It WOMENS AND G1R1S' 

Oxionls. Slippen ami Pump-, in 


ind LiL 

Fig. 10 


yourself. By following this plan you will 
soon become expert in planning out excel- 
lent advertisements. 

By way of illustration and for the guid- 
ance of merchants who are having difficul- 
ties in securing attractive "set-ups," we will 
begin by laying out a July Clearance Sale 
advertisement, as shown in Figure 10. 

To really get the benefit of this article, 
the merchant should take a sheet of paper, 
mark it off into a five column "dummy," 
and work out this advertisement step by 
step, as described here. 

You now have your copy written, and a 
number of cuts selected. If you have a 
Ready-to-Wear department, we will say that 
you want to feature this class of merchan- 
dise. Any other line would do just as well 
— if it deserved special mention as a 

You also desire to push Hosiery and 
Underwear, as well as Men's Furnishings be- 
cause Saturday in the average community is 
a good day to sell this class of merchandise. 
If you carry groceries, you can use your 
judgment as to location of this department 
in your advertisement. 

Take a "dummy sheet," and sketch out the 
space the largest part of your copy is to 
occup; namely the Ready-to Wear. See 
Figure 11. 

Place the cuts on opposite sides of the 
copy whenever possible — this balances the 

See copy marked "A" in large layout, 
figure 12. 

By writing in the headings and the bold 
prices, you find that this part of your adver- 
tisement will occupy a space practically 
three columns wide by about 7 inches deep. 
Mark this "A". 

Fig. 12 

Fig. 11 

Ne.xt, you find that the shoe cut you 
would like to use is about two-and-one-half 
columns wide by about 1% inches deep. See 
"B" In figure 12. 

Write your heading above this, being 
careful to select words that will fit the 
space; and as the number of items is an 
even number in this case ten, and about 
an equal amount of descriptive matter in 
each you "split them up" into two columns, 
because short lines are easier read than 
long ones. Note the original advertisement, 
Figure 10. 

By counting the words as suggested in 
"Fundamentals" you find that if set in 10- 
point type, which Is a good size for ordinary 
display, it will take about 2% inches deep 
for the copy — therefore your shoe copy will 
fill up the space of two-and-one-half columns 
by almost 5 inches deep Number this box 
sheet "B". See Figure 11. 

Now. by roughly sketching in these two 
departments upon your full size dummy 
sheet, (See Figure 12) you decide you have 
have about enough other copy to fill up ap- 
proximately five columns. 

Letter in your heading, after you have 
decided upon the size of your advertisement, 
as shown also in Figure 12, and make al- 
lowance for your store name, or signature. 

You now go over your copy again, and 
note that you have some "Morning Spe- 
cials" which you want to display in some 
prominent place. These with the Hosiery, 
Underwear and Men's Furnishings, you 
place near the top of your advertisement. 

Take the space necessary for your Hosi- 
ery and Underwear and paste upon the 
dummy sheet a proof of the cut you want 
used. Then you find that the "Millinery" 
will fill the space under the Hosiery and 
Underwear, and you "play-up" the two 


prices and also use a cut. Good sized cuts 
in a millinery advertisement are better than 
small ones, and the prices should be set 
unusually large, especially in a clearance 
sale, while the Millinery should be near the 
Ready-to-Wear it at all possible. 

You now discover that the waist copy 
will about "balance" with the millinery — 
that is, will take about the same space in- 
cluding a small cut, and you place this box 
on the opposite side o£ the advertisement, 
and near the Ready-to-Wear, because allied 
lines of merchandise when placed together 
in the advertisement add strength to each 

The next st.eps are easy. The merchant 
knows that he must play up the "Men's 
Furnishings," and by perhaps cutting down 
the copy a bit if he has written too much; 
or by adding to it, if too little; he places an 
attractive cut to go with the items, and 
displays this as shown in the dummy, near 
the top. See Figure 12. 

There is little left to do except to fill in 
the sides of the dummy with the most im- 
portant merchandise that remains. If house- 
hold items are carried in stock, fill in as 
shown in the dummy. 

This completes the lay-out as shown in 
Figure 12, and with the copy carefully edited, 
the merchant takes dummy and copy to the 

Together they go over the lay out, and 
the result is shown in the completed adver- 
tisement. Figure 10. 

This is a good type of bargain advertise- 
ment, and is reproduced for that reason. 

It isn't necessary for every advertisement 
to be so compactly set ; the merchant can 
choose his own style, and use a more open 
style it he so desires. The important thing 
is to choose a style and always follow it. 



Avoid the use of generalities in grocery 
advertising. Always write enough descrip- 
tive copy that will at least play up the 
quality and desirability of what you want to 
sell. Simply the name of the article and the 
price isn't enough, unless you have built up 
a reputation on price alone. 

Grocers as a rule are notoriously poor 
advertisers. Taking it tor granted that 
people must eat if they expect to live, the 
average grocer believes that he will sell so 
much in a given time. This is true, but it is 
also true that you can stimulate trade and 
increase sales by suggestions, and you can 
oftentimes create a big demand, where there 
otherwise would be a lull. 

One thing is sure — and that is — such 
meaningless advertising copy as shown in 
Figure 13 will sell very few groceries. The 
advertisements reproduced herewith might 
have been called "advertising" about twenty 
years ago, but such copy that tails to give 
the slightest information is a mere waste 
of space. 

Then in Fig. It we have reproduced a 
number of really creditable advertisements, 

Fig. 13 

as compared with the average grocery copy; 
and it took an immense amount of research 
to find these. Some of them are small, but 
this is not a fault. The average grocery 
merchant will gain far better results if he 
will run small advertisements frequently, 
particularly in towns and cities where there 
are daily or tri-weekly newspapers, than an 
occasional large advertisement — appearing 
once in a great while. 

Most of these advertisements (Fig. 14) are 
price appeal examples, and this is strong 

advertising. However, the merchant, if he 
is going to continue this style of advertising 
at regular intervals, should buy merchandise 
accordingly and watch for special buys that 
will bring him a regular profit, or nearly 

To show how a small advertisement can 
carry tempting descriptive matter, arouse 









Blue-black in color, sweet and juicy. Ideal for table use 
or presening. 

Immediately upon receipt of your order these cherries 
are picked and packed. Each box receives personal atten- 
tion and careful inspection. 

Absolute Satisfaction Guaranteed 

They reach you with that 
tang of freshness found 
only in the finest fruit. 

A big ten pound box will 
be sent t« your nearest ex- 
press office all charges pre- 
paid upon receipt of $2.85. 

Buy direct and save the 
middleman's profit. Order 
at once as the season is 
short. This ad will not ap- 
pear again. 

Sunset Fruit Co. 

Kclerencc >al<in 



Fru.l Co. 



eatra fancy Blng Cherrlel 

for whiei 1 enclose check 



Fig. 15 

interest, create desire, and close the sales — 
study Fig. 15. 

Read the description and you can almost 
taste the delicious cherries. The descrip- 
tion carries you from the desire to the point 
where you just naturally sign the coupon. 
Had this advertisement carried only a plain 
heading "CHERRIES"; simply told of the 
variety, and failed to say that they "were 
unusually large and luscious" and omitted 
much of the additional descriptive matter, 
which is known as informative copy— it 
would have failed as a trade puller. 



To advertise "dry goods" successfully the 

More merchants should keep their eye on 
the mail order house catalogs, and on the 
prices quoted by their competitors in the 
larger cities, if they are to be successful at 

Merchants who hold successful "Remnant 
Sales", and other big events throughout the 
year, do not do so by accident — they have 
planned for weeks — even months — in ad- 
vance, and they KNOW they have priced 
their merchandise where it cannot fail to 
produce big returns when advertised — -BE- 
THE FIRST PLACE. Keep in close touch 
with your wholesaler — he can aid you. 

And when the time comes that the mer- 
chandise is to be advertised — whether in 
the newspaper, store paper, circular or by 
personal letter — the merchant MUST GO 


Do not overlook this Important rule in ad- 
vertising — because it applies here — as well 
as in every branch of the retail business. 

It is useless, and a waste of money, lOr 
any merchant to write a long paragraph 
about "WASH GOODS" and therein say that 
he Is going to have "special prices on Sat- 
urday" — listing Ginghams. Percales, etc., all 
under one head^ without other description, 
or a word about price. 

See Fig. 16, and note the indicated para- 

To the woman who reads YOUR adver- 

New Merchandise 

For Spring at 

New oifcrings id plain and 
fancv Hosiery, collon. mercetized and 
silk, 2Sc to $1.50 per pair. 


New silk black and fancy kid glov« 
in nov spring shades. Tan, grey, nig- 
ger brown and black. 


Ladies' Nectwcar, nicely trimmed, 
made of Georgette silks, s^tiru. and 
laces, a t very reaK'nable pric es. 

New Wash Fabrics in voiles, crepes.l 
^ Raxons. Organdies. Gabardines, Per- 
cales and Ginghams. A big assort- 
> rnent o( patterns in these popular fast 

colors. Fast color and well weanng . 
^materials at somewhat lower pnces^ 

A good line o! Children's Gingham 
Dresses, well madf of gr-i-J materials, 
and made to hi, $1.00 lo $3.50 each 


Mina Taylor Dresses and Aprons, 
irinimed. neat filling. "Mina Taylor" 
dresses ha've plenty of room at points 
where room is needed. You can move 
freely and easily with never any pull- 
ing or binding to contend with. Youll 
find pal terns lo pIcASe you, both light 
and dark colcrs. 


Aprons, large and roomy, rnade to 
fit and give satisfaction. 


ilouscs and Shirt Waists, made ol 
L dainty georgelles and crepe de chines 

lely made up and trimmed'for Ea»- 
|ter.seilmg at each $3.89. 

Other Blouses and WaisU up to 
J5.00, $5.50, J6.50. 


Ribbons. Laces, Embr-iidcnes, in 

greal man> patterns, styles and very 


IMen's F'umisHings 

New Dress Shirts that will please in 
style and quality. 

Prices are lower on some goods and 
you will find that we are trying as 
niuch as possible to keep with the 

We handle the Lanphcr Hat. famous 
the country over for style and quality, 

New Ties, Socks, Suspenders, Un- 
derwear. Collars, Spring Caps, etc., 

Domestic Dept. 

™°' ... $1.98 

f erorheled and trtrt 



Crochet Bedspreads — Full 
Bedspr-ndi m s big Msorl 
o[ pfldtruj, ?;75 vbIqm 
Hnnmoil SprMdi— Tbuo i 
hrgf nrr. nice range ot patlci 

M.7.1 gra^r, only, each 

BaU) Mats Ooe-ThlrJ Oll^In vfry »icluiiv« pnilfnii. 
iiirlit aocl dark pallcrna, ta cloi? oul. Od« Third OS 

1500 Yards 

i and 6-yafd Itnetha. 

Extra Bargain Table 

•ilk) and 

Odd Lota bed DlicoDtlnued Lieu, (oniislini; 

plojn colored crop-", plain colored 

plain pLpUci. luDali silki, plain luiii 

niBiiy olhfn. These good* are 3n inchu w idf, 

75c B9c. tl-00 81.25 yoluM; all to cIoib ^Qq 

out at, yard 


Bone Hair PiM, !p«>»l 

Slielcrrie BfaJd, aprcial 

Hair N*u with clulic. S (or 

One lot of Itnej aod plain Hair Bo^v Ribtxan. 

Special at, yard -.•■ 

K. II. C. Croettl Cotton at. » bill .,. 10« 

~>n> lot Ecabroidertd Petticoat Flounciag. Special 

4 '' 

Oii*.'>.-. Filet Late^ valuta lo 29e. Spefia!. yard. IBc 

Hemltitbed PiUow Casta. Speci.l H.Sfl 

Ono lot Veiling Remoaoli. Sj»«ial, each 1 

One lot LsiJicj' Organdy and Lace Collan. value* U 

$1.00. iiptcial ' 

Ladiei' Silk Vtfitei, wbile and colon. Special, 

.aeh W" 

■W'lndior Titi. all eolort. Special, eath .39o 

Your choice of any Ladies' Piirio in our alock at 

This sale starts Saturday. 
Be here early for choice. 

Dress Goods 

Eillt Poplins in a big raogt of colors, ihii niakei a 
boauiitul drcia or iVin. in this salo Qy (; 

•t. a yirA 

Buy your Tiib Silks oow tor uaisu or mcn'i iliirli a% 
the.e art very icaree . our R-W qunlilj £ J ^g^ 
in Ihn Kate al. a yard... ' ' , . 

Kojicy Georgette CrepM, tbo moat pi.pular «itl[ ■'! 
today ; value] to $3.50 • yard. £9 47 

Special at, vard *fc.-r« 

A bic auorimcnt of Silk and Wool Bemnanli go in 
ih.t da at ONETHmU OFF 

3.1-incb Natural Poagee, the coolest iumm-r tilk OTir 
SI SO quality u, this lala at $1,07 

Gingham Dept. 


I1IIB»»1H>. onlT. >-«rf 03C 

't INCN r«tHCM lEPMYH OINOHAM— On. <.f Ih. «rr bt.( 
Aih, .. .h. cn«^..^ .B M.U eWb i-T .•^mm.,: 29 £ 

Drapery Department 

Voile Curtainfl — Neatly lace trimmed, on bcm- 
ini?d citge, 2V^ yards long and of good quality. 
Suitable for Dining or Bed Boomj values to 
$1.50 a pair, special, QAft 

nttpair WWV 

Caltaln W*U — Choice ot ecro or while patltm anJ 
plain efffcU, Ihtao aie good durable qiiali:y. ^^ Q 
and good values at Tie. Spdil ti, yard 


"■".""" ™.""$ 

'^1 n'omin-i Buck nbr* H««« 39C 

Glove Department 

.li^s' Long Silk Gloves, whito and black. Sp«- 

■al. pur -. ■-■■Me 

(!,«■ Chamoi-etlo GloTM, «h,lt. grey, broira. 

alack. -Special. p>ir ^ 

dies' ■gillie Silk Gloves. Special, pair . BJto 

,c lot White KiJ Gloves. Special, pair 61.89 

Fig. 17 

Wash Goods Dept. 

iO-Ineh FiTicy Wa;h Qooda In Epuird patterns nnd 
■:hcek». cooiiHing of voiles and orgjudieSi 39C 
C9c value', only ^•i'*^ 

lO.Inch Fancy Wa«h Drcsa Good) in Ihlriy beauHful 
palleras, cooMiling of voilct, orgaodiei and tmue 
ginghami. Thii i* an elegant lot ot clean mercSan.lue , 
and «-ilI ecU out [asC> 75e values 59 C 

40. Inch Colored Waib Ooods— Tlii* line contaio!! the 
latcrt French patlerna, printed on a round thread 
vmle, niti waili and mako up in Juna Itjte^ G9c 

E5c valun only, yard w*#^ 

Se^Incta Plain Wbita Fancy Wash Voflci— Tbia ii a 
vi'r)' lar-,.-p BI^ortlnent. very suitable for uparalo iciiiii 
ojid (Ireuci, in atripea, ebecks, plaida and Sn^ifi ptt- 
lemi, valuca to G9c, 49C 

Ons Tabla of Ttwf Colotvd Wuh VoQ«9 In a fino 

iLly?!.*!'"'^'^ ^^^ 

Se-Inch White BklrUng— The but and coolcit itifoj 
{ .r iumm-r ikirit and middy euiU; ^Qf 

7^e values, .pccial, yard _ "t^C 

Si^lDch Fancy WUte Skirting In a irondertul lins cf 
up-to dale paltems and tteiits — tricotmei. gabet 
dinci, baaket weave], Oxford and many otber n9» 
ireavcs,- £1.00 Talnes. only 69C 

Table of Plain Wblta Llnweaves — '^ttn lilie linen and 
ketpi as ai inoiv. for >vaiit«. dteaiei OQC 

aotl children's "ear, only, yard *4**» 

40.1ach Plain While VoUca— Five bolts ol elegant 
round thread voiles with a very fine finish, eome 
early for Ibcsc 65a values for, 35c 

40-lncli Plain Voile in Colorv^SS new and np-to-thn 
niinuto colors, lait colors and cheap al 53c; ^Q^ 

thi. .ale, yard O^C 

40-Inch Pine French VoOee in b good asiortment of 
new pallemsi Iheia sra faal colun. ^Q/> 

E.tra .[**,al. yard J»^ 

Muslin Underwear Dept. 

One lot of Cortet Covtrs, sold up lo SI 0(1 CQtf* 
Thisaalc JJ»* 

Xeally trimmed OiemiHi, loma irilh embroidery and 
lace, othcn smoeked in blue, all sites. £4 OQ 
(rood value at SI C9- Thi, sale . ,, **»*^ 
A pink crepe Teddy. Irimnieti triih blue •m^fjulT' 
all slKj; $1.75 value- 0.4 •3<X 

This ulc »X.O^ 

A double panel 'n'hito Sateen Pcllicoai. Q: 4 CO 
pood sualiiy; $13S value ^HX.J^ 

An eiira heavy while falcen Pcttleoai. tt* TQ 

eitra quality. This sale *X./3 

A crepe do chino Aid ■tiin Camiiolc in pirili QQ f> 
only, all liies. Deal Incc trim ... ... 'OC 

tiseraent — Percale is in a class by itself, as 
compared with Ginghams, organdies, etc.,, 
and if she has planned on some garment she 
desires to make out of Percale, she is inter- 
ested in YOUR advertisement and she wants 
to know all about the colors, and the price. 

Such items should be separated and ac- 
curately described as to color combinations, 
and suggestions as to what they are most de- 
sirable for. If you have some short lengths, 
say so; and don't forget that Mrs. Smith 
may be looking for a bargain in something 
with a "blue stripe", while a "pink dot" 
doesn't interest her a little bit. 

Be accurate — be complete in your descrip- 
tions — that's the way to advertise and SELL 

Suppose the mail order houses should list 

their "NEW WASH GOODS" in the manner 
shown in Fig. 16 — would they receive any 
replies — or any orders? Certainly not. 

Then why should local merchants try to 
accomplish the impossible in advertising? 

Fig. 17 is a good example of how to ar- 
range a large number of items, whether they 
represent bargains or not. 

The sub-heads enable the women to quick- 
ly pick out the items in which they may be 

In Fig. 17 there is no "hodge-podge" ar- 
rangement of everything, but a systematic, 
attractive, set-up, that can be written up in 
any store and set up in any printing office. 

It taikes time to write this kind of copy, 
but it is well worth while, if you expect 

Fig. 16 



Women's Ready-to-Wear is largely a sea- 
sonable proposition, and the successful mer- 
chant must keep pace with the seasons in 
his advertising, or rather — be a step in ad- 

Beginning with the Spring season — every 
merchant who sells ready-to-wear should be- 
gin advertising the '"new things" and create 
a desire for new clothes — as early as possi- 
ble especially if the "Easter" season is early. 

Do not wait, and permit the catalog houses 
and large city department stores get tlie 
"jump" on you. 

The same thing applies to Summer styles. 
Be ahead of the game, and CREATE DE- 

MAND. In large cities the Fall and Winter 
suits, coats and dresses for women, along 
with other Autumn necessities for milady's 
wardrobe, begin to make appearance early 
in August — and at the same time the fur- 
riers, the department stores — as well as the 
specialty shops — all announce their "August 
Fur Sales." 

Keep your advertising and merchandise 
just ahead of climatic changes, and with the 
seasons following in rapid succession it is 
obvious that oftentimes one class of mer- 
chandise must be "'clearing" before all the 
new merchandise is announced. 

With this in mind, there are two distinct 
classes of advertising copy that must be pre- 
pared, if the merchandise is to be successful- 
ly and profitably moved. 

Advertising copy that announces the ar- 




Graceful Designs 
Latest Tjrpes 

«( put on wk %NiM. J<a>« l'*>h, •»• reli" >tock 
ol LmSb*. ^fll•a' ami QuMtoi'i CuU ud SuiU al ■ 

20 Per Cent 

IXi bM nul tKu ipfoil 6pf»f1iiiu(v to pWcKcJC *i 
up Is ike ininiV*'ai*l and tuil. MVmg on^UlIi tb 











The August Sale of 

PLUSH COATS lor Misses 

20% Discount On Every Garment 

rival of new merchandise must be of the 
style variety — high class in every respect, 
and it must play up the desirability, materi- 
als, style features, and colors to the limit. 

To hurriedly prepare copy and "skimp" 
on descriptive matter in describing new 

Fig. 20 


Our entire line of Ladies Spring Coats at 33 'I3 per Cent Disc. 

All Ladies', Misses ami Children's Trimmed Hats to close at 
\VM per cent Discount. 

A large line of Ladies Underwear to sell at Bargain Prices. 

Ladies and Children's Dresses at old prices. 

A large line ot Cliildrcn's Summer Wash Suits to close at One-Half the present prices 

A large line of Summer dress goods and waisting materials to close at less than 
ONE-HALF the present prices. 

Just a received a large line of New Rugs in Velvets and Axminlsters, 
Linoleum and Congoleum, all sizes and good patterns. 

merchandise, which all clearance advertise- 
ments should do. 

Compare this style of so-called advertis- 
ing with P^g. 20 and note the vast differ- 
ence in the amount of genuine, desire creat- 
ing descriptive copy. Good cuts are neces- 
sary and in Fig. 20 they help the "ad" im- 

Figures 21 and 22 are also good styles of 
effective advertising. Fig. 22 is known as 

Red StanitJ- 

The Season's Most 

Slunnlc^ Soils Arrive My { 

m m m 


iitylci and gathered nM)iIel»: 
pockeU nnd btlU, SpMliUly 
priced for Monday 


THE P;EW dolman coat Ai>iD capes 

vflopcil In Wool Vclaura, Silverlonr, Miti> Wear Scrjv » 
~ " Our BMltm ot »elUtig vn umiill nmrglni Is I 

plniulion of thwe low pHeea — 

(5> St TricoliliU. 

im -^ 2Si ">• 

'*if ^COVERALL APRONS fft | Ruqs -Slair ? 

Fig. 21 

merchandise, is to commit commercial sui- 

If you are holding a clearance, there can 
be a trifle less detailed descriptions, espe- 
cially if prices are made low enough to 
create a sensation. In all "bargain" adver- 
tising, however, it must be kept in mind that 
prices should be set in large bold type — 

In high class copy announcing new goods, 
the price may be subordinated, and even a 
range of prices is often times sufficient, but 
in "clearance" sales advertising, be specific 
concerning garments and prices, and leave 
little for ihe customer to guess about. 

Figures IS and 19 are examples of "weak" 
copy. Neither advertisement gives any im- 
pression of unusual values, and worthwhile 

A Big Shipment 

The Newer Suits 
$50 $SS $59.50 


MADEof fi^e serge, at»o need !c-poin( gabardine, in 
new tailored, belied and bloiiscd modes; with ind wiih- 
oui vcsiccs, All arc sniarr, conservative suio. wiili silk Itn- 
ings and perfect finish. A good varicrj' of models. 

Tit Suit Sbop— Semnd Floor. 

$50 $55 $65 

MOST attractive arc these jtm arriicd suede velours and 
siKcrtone wrap coats with their capey backs and nar- 
row front sash belts: big collars; lonely silk lining. Come 
in old blue. Titian, Pckin. deer, tan and taupe. $i>0 and $55. 

Navy blue capes of fine serge, with scarfs and cuff 
bands of navy tricolct, -<C5. 

Wrap coats of Poiret twill in French blue or tan; 
unusually good-looking. $69.50. 

"^O^avy serge capes with vest front in seU color. $39.50. 
Thi Cm! Shap—Eotranf* Floor. 

Fig. 22 


the "open" style of display without illustra- 

Fig. 21 shows how it is possible to say much 
in little space, and yet brings out descrip- 
tions of merchandise, as well as display the 
prices. This is the better style for the av- 
erage store where other merchandise is han- 
dled, and where the ready-to-wear occupies 
only a section of the general store advertise- 



Every man and boy is a wearer of cloth- 

This may appear a foolish and self-evi- 
dent statement, yet it is not; though thou- 
sands of merchants in the men's clothing 
business evidently take the first paragraph 
for granted — and for the last twenty years 
have been "running" two advertisements in 
their local papers, with the idea that so 
much clothing is to be sold, regardless of 
any advertising that might be done. 

In the Spring we see scores of advertise- 
ments which read something like this: 


A Full and Complete 
Line of 



and HATS 

See Our Display of 



And in the Fall this type of advertisement, 

Men's clothing, like ladies' ready-to-wear, 
is somewhat of a seasonable proposition in 
the average town, and this is one of the 
things the merchant must break away from. 

Of course, there is the "dres.s-up-tlme" 
just before Easter, and overcoat time when 
the weather turns cold, etc., but the clothier 
and the dealer who handles men's furnish- 
ings should be "pounding them on the back" 
all the time. 

It's the simplest thins in the world to ap- 
peal to most men. 

Every man has a sense of pride — and the 
great majority like to be well dressed. 

The man on the farm is now wearing just 

uery large tlor'ki. bought mrly: 
we're ready [or etiery leroice you need in 
clolhei: too per cent wa/ue; 100 per eenl all- 
wool (abrirt: 100 oer cent taln[aclion or money 
cheertally refunded. 

Intensive values in overcoats 

3n] Roar 

MANY of ihe materials wc show arc 
not now to be had by makers; but 
we have the largest supply ever shown 
here Carr Meltons. Crombie Scotches. 
O'Brien duRles and friezes. Worumbo 
chinchillas. St. George kcreeys. Blan- 
ket-back weaves, boucles. tweeds. Ely- 
sians; fur collared and fur lined over- 
coats; wool lined; for strcc[ dress and 
siorm wear. Welt-waist models, double 
brtasied models, Raglans. Chesterfields. 
At prices for quality that you can't 
$25. $30. $35. $40. $50. $60, 
$75. $100. $125, $150. 

Intensive values in suits for 
men and young men 

AS fine as ever produced: fabrics, 
tailoring, style as near perfection 
as you'll ever see; made in the best cus- 
lorn manner. A large choice of weaves, 
patterns, colors, in many new models. 
S2j. $30, $35 $40, $50. $6a 

Fig. 23 

as sood clothes — and even better — than the 
fellow in town. All the merchant has to do 
is to appeal to his customer's weakness — 
pride, vanity, desire to be better dressed 
than the other fellow — and back up his ad- 
vertising with the merchandise. 

As in every other line of retail advertis- 
ing — clothing advertisements must contain 
REAL INFORMATION. The better the mer- 
chant can picture his merchandise, the 
greater will be the response to his adver- 

Fig. 23 is a sample of advertising that is 

GeL in Line 

With the Well Dressed 

We havr a lino ot suits an,l r.iraishirns is up lo Iho minulc in styl, an.l 
workmnnsh.p, and .-it priors Ihal .iiv -inc lo men with y.inr ni-iuuval Wo 
would be pleased to have you cotiio in anil lot u.s show you. 

Fig. 25 

building up a wonderful volume of business, 
and yet there is nothing wonderful about 
the advertislns. 

Just plain descriptions of the merchandise 
— in a language any merchant can write — 
if he would only try. This is the type of 
advertising that more merchants should fol- 
low — and their advertising will begin to 
bring business — and as the advertising con- 
tinues— MORE BUSINESS will follow. 

Figure 24 is an interesting advertisement 
— because it came so very close to being an 
excellent "trade-getter" and yet failed at the 
critical point. 

The introductions are well worded — and 
had the merchant followed each with just a 
he would have clinched many a sale. 

If merchants would only take the time 

A Complete Line of 

Just in. 
Union and Two-Piece Suits 

New Winter Hosiery, Hats, Caps 

The Foil Suits and Overcoats 

Have Arrived. 

You Should See Them. 


With such inieresting advertisements star- 
ing them in the face, from week to week, 
and year to year — Is it any wonder that peo- 
ple are led to buy away from home — through 
the trade pulling power of some "wide awake 
competitors advertising or through the glow- 
ing descriptions of the mail order catalog? 

"Cool Stuff^^-ThaVs What 
These Suits Are Made Of! 

Tliey are not only cool in matenal but they 
have no excess weigh'i. The verj' clothes 
you want for summer wear — they have just 
come to us from Mart Schaffner & Marx. 

In these groups you wHIl find some of the finest clothes made. The newest 
ideas for men and young men. We have told yoathat when we move into 
the Coffey Building we are going to give Luveme a modem clothing store but 
we are not waiting iiniii then to fri\'e you high grade clothing at attractive 
prices. We havi ^k-m her e ikj^) ^ g 

The Day 
May Be Hot 
—But You 
Can Keep 

Tb«y fll well 

ril*llon — just wh«t y 

Straiv Hats for 
Every Man 

There's a Differ- 
ence in Sltirts 

All shifts don't look the same 
and don't wear equally well. 
These are made of ver>' ser\-ice- 
''^' ' made to stand the 

able matenal— 


No matter what kind of a hat 
you want we are pretty sure to 

haveit It is an extensive show- 1K|^/ ' "'earandtearof thelaundrj-.The 

ing we have here in the new 9^^* ^'~. pattemsaresoattractiveyou will 

straws and styles.— .Younji mpj ^,^.''' yf enjoy wearing them these days 

seem to favor the u-ough straws !^ .r, i / when you go about without a coat . 

We have them— tijjy ar^ snaiJpy v^n ^ so much. Srn thrm "'ii ua'il 

looking roodefe* / 7 ■ , ") ' ' see they are^reat value^-'WML, . 

OfvlT^-w ^A^-*^ .' "^ =^ atw ■ 

Get acquainted with this store. You will find us progressive. We are on duty here evei-y 
minute of the day to give you satisfaction. We will have a finer location later on — the Coffey 
Building but we could not handle any better goods than we have — they are the best made. 

Fig. 24 


to describe their merchandise as it ought to 
be described— and get away from mere 
"nothings"— there would be thousands of 
dollars coming into their tills instead of 
going elsewhere. 

Note carefully the difference in Fig. 25. 
Here the merchant has taken the readers 
of his advertisement into his confidence. 
While the descriptions are perhaps a bit 
brief, the items are plainly marked, and the 
reader readily gains a good idea of the mer- 

ways be common sense copy. "Comedy" is 
dangerous, but at times can be used. Tell 
the men about your merchandise — as though 
you were talking to them. Make your per- 
sonality stand out in your advertisements. 
Generalities have long since had their day. 

Men like new clothes, new neckwear, new 
hosiery — new hats — and they will always 
ask the price? Why not tell them all about 
it in your advertising? 

If you are not doing this now — begin at 
once — and watch your business grow. Use 
good illustrations— and have the "fellows" 
looking for your advertisements every week 
— every day if possible. 

"You say Cool Shirts for Hot 
Weather? 0, yes, we have a 

biR line of fancy patterns in madras 
silli and mercerized. 

Just drop in our cool store and wc 
will convince you that we have jusl 
what you are looking for at right, 
prices too— 


^ TKe Furnislimg Man 


J. SnvitK, 

Fiff. 26 

chandise. Advertisements of this character 
will draw trade where Figure 24 fails utter- 

The advertisement shown in Fig. 26 has 
been reproduced — because it shows how so 
many merchants fail to grasp the necessary 
details in iidvertising men's furnishings. 

The reproduction shows an attractive 
cut; the first part of the introduction is ex- 
And you ask why? 

Because there is a variety of materials 
hinted at— Madras, Silk and Mercerized. 
Necessarily there must be a wide range of 
prices. Somewhere within this merchant's 
territory there are men who NEED NEW 
but they are not going into town— a distance 
of perhaps 10 to 15 miles to find out the 
prices— when right at home they have hand- 
somely illustrated folders from various cata- 
log concerns— telling all THEY WANT TO 

And another important point — SIZES. 
Women buy many shirts for their husbands 
—and their sons. Many times these women 
have come into your store to choose some- 
thing advertised, and found only disappoint- 
ment because THE DESIRED SIZE WAS 

Therefore in advertising shirts— if there 
is a complete run of sizes— say so— it sizes 
are broken mention it— then the customer 
cannot be disappointed. 

Clothing and furnishings copy must al- 



To advertise footwear successfully you 
MUST have exact illustrations of the styles 
and models — most manufacturers will gladly 
furnish these if you will only make your 
desires known. 

Single column cuts or a trifle smaller, are 
to be preferred for general purposes; but 
when there is a particular style you desire 
to feature it is best to have a cut that is 
about a colunm and a-half or two columns 
wide, so that the feature illustration will 
"standout" from the others, and be readily 
noticed — thereby creating the impression of 
something out of the ordinary. 

The general "style" of shoe advertising is 
the same— whether you are handling shoes 
exclusively, or whether you conduct a gen- 
eral store — and carry your shoe copy in your 
general advertisement. 

Briefly— there are FOUR IMPORTANT 
SELLING POINTS that should be brought 
out in the advertising. They are STYLE, 

Under style you give the names of the 

Under quality comes the names of the 
leathers, their durability; how well the shoe 
is made, quality of soles, and the many other 
strong points which a thorough study of 
your merchandise will bring out. 

Under price comes the selling price — 
which should be quoted — especially if you 
are closing out or featuring a special lot. 

Fig. 27 

particular models— tell of their newness— 
and it advertising women's shoes you should 
enlarge upon the beauty of the models you 
are showing — how trim and neat the 
woman's foot would appear in a pair of such 
pumps, or shoes, as the case might be. Play 
up the styles and CREATE DESIRE. 

Under fit you should tell of the range of 
sizes; impress all with your superior ability 
to fit shoes comfortably, and tell why the 
shoes you handle are built for ease and com- 

Popular Priced 
Low Shoes 

See the Big Display in Our 
Window of Popular Priced 

l-adics' patent )cailicr or kid. 
Louia heel Oxfords Pnccd 
UM, $6-00, $7.00 

ILadici and Girls" while Military 
heel Oxfords, made in white 
fabric at tiSa, $4jOB, »M. »SJ« 
and .- ......»« 

.White Buckskin P^ 

White kid J9J» 

tjyta a.^^ '■'^-^ 

It is difficult to describe shoes in your ad- 
vertising, and bring people into your store, 
if you do not quote at least a few prices. 
People living in the country can form no 
idea of the value of your footwear if you 


insist upon leaving out the prices in your 
circular and newspaper advertising. 
Cuts Are Necessary 
As said before— suitable cuts are neces- 
sary and extremely important. Every dealer 
should see to it that he is plentifully sup- 
plied, especially if he is contemplating run- 
ning large advertisements — either in an- 
nouncing new styles or for closing out sales. 
Avoid generalities in all advertising copy 
— they will never sell shoes, and are just 
as much out of place in footwear advertis- 
ing as anywhere else. 

Figure 27 is an example of too many 
generalities and is very poor selling copy. 
Has Selling Punch 
Figure 28 is the kind of advertising that 
sells footwear, and proves that the mer- 
chant knew in advance just what he was go- 
ing to advertise and had the proper illus- 
trations at hand to go with the shoes he 
wished to sell. 

There is only one grave fault with Figure 
28, and that is the descriptions should have 
been underneath the cuts, rather than above. 
The mother at home reads this advertise- 
ment — and forms from it a splendid idea of 
the styles she would like — the price she 
feels she can afford to pay. 

Figure 29 and Figure 30 offer an inter- 
esting study. They appeared on the same 
date in the same country weekly, and the 


I Men's Shoes I 

With the arrival of our New Fall Ralston Shoes, our 
now complete stock of Men's Shoes is ready for your in- 

We have shoes to fit every foot and every pocket- 
book; with Style, Quality and Comfort combined in every 

Comparison with city prices and with wholesale 
price-lists will show that we are endeavoring to protect 
our customers, as we have always done in the past ; and it 
is not too broad a statement to make, when we say that 
we are selling shoes today, at prices which are as low as 
those of the manufacturers, according to the wholesale 

Come in and look over our stock — we challenge com- 



Florsheim, Crossett, Rals- I 
ton, Connelly Shoes g 

Fig. ■.;:i 

reader can judge which pulled the most 
business. Figure 29 is mere mention of geis- 
eralities. Figure 30 goes into detail about 
the merchandise, and is an invitation to buy. 
Perhaps the heading in Figure 30 coulil 
have been stronger by saying "DURABLE 

and the prices might have been larger. It is 
however a very good piece of copy for the 
average store, and in comparison with 
Figure 29 demonstrates why it is desirable 
to go into details. If you do not, your com- 
petitor WILL. 

Thus it can be readily seen that shoe ad- 
vertising is simple — but you must be pre- 
pared for it. 

Ordinarily small space can be used. Large 
space when there are the new styles to be 

around your advertisements. Be liberal with 
white space, and use the best illustrations 
you can procure. 

There are occasions when new styles can 
be featured, and if a general group of new 
arrivals is mentioned — you can refrain from 







Are your feet raatjy for a ne* psij* of ibo<s»¥ U «, 
briop: them right In and we wffl ffl « pair Q< ihoen and 
tUst wlU tatlsfy rour feet, mind nai piir«T>. ITiaM kh 
TTcrsLj aJio« OD th« market but aol (iv^y Aoe at« e«aC7 

W« art pleased to state that we mxr? the bipgart wtbn 
df shoe."! tn the county. Men's dreBa shooi Id bt«o4 m 
•Q^ed. lace or button, in a variety of atyleas VX 13.90, 
»9.0I), S3.50, 84.00, H.M, 55.00 and op to rS.50. 
M»aB Work Shoes. reRuIar height and Mjrh tops and wit- 
ing Bals. at KSO. $2.75, S3. 00, 53.50, $4.00, J4.B0 
SS.OOard ap to S9.00. 

' IfaK'e Mule Skins, at S1.95, $2.26 aad J2.36 

' Boya' Dress and Work Shoes, sizes 2>^ to &i^. button and 

I tece, narrow and wide toe, at $1.66 t*) $4.00 

I Tloiitha' Shoes, siaes 11 V^ to 2, sama as bo,Te'. 

. at — - - $1.50 »o S3iS 

Littte Gents' Shoes, siies 8V4 to 11, at _ $1.35 to P3.00 

Ladies' Shoes in a Tarietv of colors, etyle and wi.Uhs. 

I at _ $2.50 to SS.50 

I llfiiww' Shoes, sizes llVz to 2. at _ .$2.00 to $4.00 

1 Gtrla" Shoes, sizes »¥> to H. at... _...$1.75 to »S.00 

j Qlfld's Shoes, sizes SV4 to 8. at- _90c to $2.25 

) Infant's Shoes, sizes 1 to 5, a4._ 50c to $1.75 

Ken's Tennis Shoes, at $1.0!raiid $1.25 

' Boys' Tennis Shoes, at $1.00 and $1.K 

', And many other thinfrs in footwear too numerous tj 

) mention but come Sn and see th*>m. 

) .^^^__^^^^^_^^^^^_^^^^__ 

featured — or where a large clearance sale 
is to be held. 

The big sales should be planned far in 
advance, and the stock arranged accordingly. 
Shoes to be closed out at one price should 
be advertised in groups in the newspaper 
advertisements with a bold, black price; 
and when the customers visit the store — 
have these shoes in plain sight upon bargain 
tables — and under a big price card. This 
saves much time — and customers like to 
sort out the bargain shoes for themselves. 

In announcing new footwear — especially 
for the women — neat borders should be used 

Fig. 31 

mentioning price. But these occasions are 
rare — and such general advertisements 
should be well written with the distinct pur- 
pose of creating sufficient desire upon the 
part of the readers to bring them into the 
store. (See Figure 31.) 

Shoe merchants should watch the daily 
papers. Keep in close touch with the adver- 
tising of the firms you know to be unusually 
successful — and you will gain many valuable 
ideas for your own advertising. 



Increase the number of prospective cus- 
tomers, and you increase your business. 

Hardware men have been many years in 
learning that women are good patrons — 
but the hardware must be so stocked that 
women will find it profitable and easy to 
trade there. 

Women in large numbers would long ago 
have been patrons of the hardware stores 
had they known — ori even thought, that 
this class of store carried very much in 
which they were interested. 
Then and Now 

The old time hardware merchant did very 
little advertising, and what little he did, was 
too much in the nature of "general mention" 
which failed to attract very much trade. 

Today the successful hardware merchant 
advertises his wares through carefully pre- 
pared publicity. He tells people of the many 
things he has for the home — for the farm; 
things people want — and his trade is increas- 
ing because he has CREATED business. 

In other words, the progressive fellows in 
the hardware business have taken a broader 
view of their territory, have sized up the 
needs of the community along with the pos- 
sibilities, and have literally compelled peo- 
ple to buy because of the attractiveness of 
their stores, the variety of merchandise in 
stock, and the manner in which they have 

The extent to which this can be success- 


fully carried is best illustrated by the ac- 
companying reproduction of a modern "hard- 
ware" advertisement. 

Type of Real Hardware Advertising 

Study the reproduction marked Figure 32. 
Note the illustrations — how uniform they 
are — and how they really illustrate the 
articles advertised. This proves that the 
advertisement was not hurriedly thrown to- 
gether — but that the cuts were provided for 


13 SO 6^ ST 








apKHJ >1.33 








■■'■ "fwi IlctiiTtriT pH^ 
■" Hp«lAI. ■Z.«S 



U- S. Clitnax 
of .26 



Duxbak Huntl^ng 

T» pruwrl; «ijnf rpor bunllor or BDOrji 
lr1|> im a'lit t* (lilUDir virbrd ETh iM 

iBiri jB^ji Doilurt nt KiKp 11 dutm 

J« aar ipsrllDI Oi>od« Daptrlmaiil *« biT* 

moDT tljln of (ffnn»r», roilh bid, mci (Oil ' 
o(ti»r tfU''l« of truibii^k inil E*ia[> U •«/- 
lug •pcnari rpr uw •[locritDaD 



Hardware Co. o 
13 So. 6th St. S 

in advance; and the same is true of the 
merchandise mentioned. 

Advertisements of this character build up 
a tremendous business, because they have a 
popular appeal, and they CREATE SALES. 
This advertisement was timely also — having 
appeared in October, just at the opening 
of the season for which the items were in- 
tended. Naturally, of course, this store also 
carried a general line of hardware of all 
Newspapers are used by this firm for items 
which appeal to ALL of the people. 

Here is a broad field for hardware men 
and advertisements of this class demon- 
strate how to take advantage of the oppor- 

No matter what the size of your advertise- 
ments Illustrations play a prominent part, 
and you should be plentifully supplied, other- 
wise much of the attractiveness of your ad- 
vertisements is lost. 

Compare this interesting advertisement 
with Figures 33 and 34. It is true that you 
can't say very much in a small ad, but in 



I Builders, Hardware, Tools, .Slpves, Ranges i 
















i Hot Water 


Hot Air I 


Your old job repaired or new installed § 
Now's the time to have it done. = 





■iiiniuHiiiHiiBiiiiiiMiimiiuHiiHninnpiHninwnHin iuwiiiiiM WiiiiHiaiifm 

Fig. 33 

this case 33 and 34 do not say anything that 
is interesting, informative or instructive. 

Such ads are meaningless generalities and 
create no desire for the goods. In other 
words they cannot produce direct results. 

Pi.gure 35 is an example of effective stove 
advertising. While it is not necessary for 
every dealer to be advertising "cut" prices 
— the general arrangement of this advertise- 
ment is the point sought to be emphasized. 

Note in Figure 35 that the cuts are of uni- 
form size, and this is a valuable point to 
remember. The descriptions are complete, 
and a prospective customer can form an 
opinion of each stove. 

When you can impress people with the 
merits of your goods through advertising, 
you may rest assured that they will come 
into your store the first time they are in 
town. If you do sell your merchandise 
through your advertising — there is a chance 
— a very grave chance — that these people 
will go to the other store FIRST. They may 
even go to some other town. 

Figure 35 has another important feature 
that many merchants should note in addi- 
tion to the uniformity of the illustrations. 
The general appearance of this particular 
advertisement is very similar to mail order 
catalog arrangement. This is not difficult to 
obtain, and is most effective where com- 
petition is very strong, and where the price 
appeal is an important element. 

Advertisements of this character must be 
carefully planned and laid out on "dummy 
sheets" in order to accommodate the type 
matter. You must utilize all the space. It 
is impossible to obtain any such results from 
hurriedly prepared reading matter, with cuts 
of any and all sizes, and expect your printer 
to set up a good advertisement. 

Any given amount of space must have a 
given amount of type matter or illustration 
to fill that space. The printer cannot fill the 
space of your advertisement by magic. 

In Figure 36 the dealer used an excellent 
illustration furnished by the manufacturer. 
The accompanying text is quite good, and 
had the merchant followed with copy of his 
own, half as good, he would have had a very 
attractive as well as an effective advertise- 

But instead of this the merchant lapsed 
into the old-time generalities — without going 
into detail. 

Sad Irons are more than plain sad irons. 
The merchant could have played up their 
safety, convenience, the good work they do, 
economy, and many other GOOD points, and 
made the WOMEN WANT THEM. 
The same with ice cream freezers. 
Why couldn't the merchant have played 
up the deliciousness of home made ice 
cream, how much richer and palatable than 
factory made, and even gone farther and 
told how easy it is to make dainty ices, and 
numberless frozen sherbets that would add 
individuality to the luncheon, dinner, or sup- 
per when there are invited guests? 

Ice cream freezer manufacturers have at- 
tractively printed recipe books, and the mer- 
chant could have advertised these in connec- 
tion with the freezers. Where is there a 
woman who would not have been interested 
at once, especially in the average small 
town^ and that is where this advertisement 

Taken all in all it is simply a matter of 
making hardware advertising attractive. 
They are hundreds of items in the average 
hardware store that people need. It only re- 
mains for the dealer to mention them in a 
way that will attract, really CREATE desire. 
Take advantage of the opportunities of- 
fered in your respective communities. Be 
well informed on your entire line. Be a 
sportsman, know shot guns, fishing tackle, 
foot ball, in fact anything that will add to 


THE people of 
s<.u UKc and 
vicinity will find 
a reliable and 
complete stock of 
Hardware at this 
store,- Our prices are right and our goods are the 
best that can be bought. Your patronage respect- 
fullv solicited. 

Fig. 34 



Take Advantage of These Big 
Bargains Saturday*-Save Money 

At BBrtmu'i, tba BIf Stor*— Op<n 8*ui/d>y EvenliwEuleit Cndit T«nua In tkc (3(7 


LJM tf 

Fig. 35 

your trade. Make the people WANT to come 
to your store for every possible item they 
can buy of you. 

Give real service. 

In addition to newspaper advertising there 
are thousands of attractive folders to be se- 
cured from the manufacturers and whole- 
salers. These, when printed in colors are es- 
pecially good business pullers and should go 
out regularly to a large mailing list. Have 

pie's needs. It's easy to be just a little in 
advance of the other fellow. 

And don't rest on the idea that a hard- 
ware store is for men only. 



To be a successful furniture dealer and 

advertiser, the merchant must make a com- 
plete and exhaustive survey of his particular 
field. He must know exactly what his people 
need and will buy and then decide on the 
extent to which he is going to push certain 

By "furniture" we mean the general class 
— including not only beds, chairs, tables, etc., 
but carpets, rugs, draperies, and the hun- 
dreds of other articles that come under the 
heading of home furnishings. 

First of all, the furniture dealer must plan 
his advertising campaign in accordance with 
the size of the community in which he does 

In the smaller communities where the 
trade is largely from the rural communities, 
the mailing list and the personal letter should 
play an important part. 

In the larger cities, where the newspapers 
have a wide circulation, the newspaper ad- 
vertising will keep business going. 

In all printed advertising, whether news- 
paper or by large circulars, there should al- 
ways be included quite a wide variety of 
merchandise, and the furniture items should 
be illustrated with well chosen cuts, of uni- 
form size. 

The reason that personal letters, and per- 
sonal solicitation are necessary, is because 
much business is to be had with individuals, 
when there is a marriage, a new home be- 
ing built, etc. 



BISCUITS, baked po.Mots. . »vorj 
iM.t. .OOP. and coffee-all at once. 
Suchi. hou.ekeepingwithaFlorenee. 
Untit Tou owD ih>i -r.ckle» o.\ (love. >oii 
■e to k' (heo drudgerf. The 


The Fuel Adm 


iicn Buthoii; 
..e um of Oil Cook 
Slovei and Oil Heaters at ihia line s ver^ 
important help inihe nece*iary conserva- 
tion o( coal for war pUTpOM*. 

Come in and let ui thaw you how 
■ioplj it woika, 

Gasolene Sad Irons 

Ice Cream Freezers 

All Sizes- 


:;iaTr- innKT'^-a-i.-.Tnr jti 

Fig-. 36 

your mailing list "split up" so that washing 
machine folders will go to women who are 
prospective purchasers and your folders ad- 
vertising something for the farm to farmers. 
Watch the seasons, and anticipate the peo- 

</a Lt^yf- cu-,^ ^-ZuJ^ t<, fVyvT^^vA^ 

S#S^i^:^S^»v« S"-;' 


■*«> When jou patronize this furniture store 

?'' you can assure yourself that the merchandise 

^■', is dependable and that you are getting a full 

\(.' dolUr's worth for your money. 

>: This is strictly a one-price stor..^ — no r>at- 

i?'; ter how much you purchase or how little, the 

; . price is fixed by .-idding to the cost of merchan- 

^; dise the overhead and a small margin of pro- 

^ /^ The next limo you need some furniture 

% I cme here and save money .ind ppt hett^-r fur- 




Beds, Bedding, Wallpaper, 
I Baby Carriages, Portieres, 
i Suitcases, Trunks, Cup- 
boards and Cabinets. 


Furniture and 

Carpets, Window Shades, 
Mouldings, Etc., Etc. 


^^■>c-»^»<->»x->.^»e»> n c ^ ^^ 

.>.x-x-:-K->**->*<->*««««««^ I 

Pig. 37 


F^^ale Prices on furniture — tor the KnrirL- Home— arc but a few ( 
many exceptional values in furniture of the better grades. 

The Savings Should Appeal to 
Every Thrifty Person 

Security Stamps are an Addi- 
tional Saving to You 

Advertising through the newspaper, and 
by other means, must carry suggestions, and 
the details must be complete. Mere gener- 
alities, where only a tew things are men- 
tioned, and that in only a half hearted way 
— mean nothing to the reader, and cannot 
lead to sales except in rare instances. 

The kind of advertising to avoid is shown 

'Lace and Novelty Curtains-- 

In the Clearance Sale at About One-Third 
to One-Half Under Real Value. 


lijcliidine Clunyn, t>ble Nets, Marquisettes, Voill 
MbAtSs Weaves and NotUtigharai— abQut fifty diffJ 
kinds — from ordinary NottiDghams to fine haol 
e French Lace CurtainB — in the Oearancc Sale J 
Prices About Ont-lhird to Onehnlf lender Real Valu^ 

•23^ CurtamB, pr $1.3 
$0,00 Curtains, pr $1.5 
$1 50 Curtains, pair 
$1 40 Curtains, pair 68^ 
POc Curtains, pair Cl^^l 
75c Cortains, pair 58« 

$20 Curtains, pr $10rOO 
$J5 Curtains, pair $7.50 

^.-^ Curtains, pair $4.00 

$7 Curtains, pair $3.50 

$6 CurlB.ns, pair $3.00 

$5 Curlama. pair $2.50 

$3 Cortoin<(, pair $1.08 

^ $1.25 to $1.75 Sash Curtain*, pair— 

Of Marnuis.'Hc and Voile — Ao assorted lot io 

Tom spnn« HouM tcrki and wtiile, the hottoms are hemmed, and 

Ectuniistucg Is not lo the lops art- headed. The material alone in many 

v«fy far od-wty not „f ,),ggp Curtains is worth i5c to $l-"3 — ^^^' 

^f2;?.»°.°,' ,''£ •»" '"•''"' •" "•"" '° """ ^'" """ 

t«Io7 at pa; 


Fig. 39 

in Figure 37. These are reproductions of 
double column advertisements clipped from 
newspapers. It would seem that dealers 
would see the utter uselessness of running 
this kind of advertising copy. Surely it is 
evident that there is no "punch", no pulling 
power in such advertising. 

The style of newspaper and circular ad- 
vertising that will bring business is shown 
in Figure 38. There are plenty of pictures, 
descriptive matter and prices. Even though 
small, the illustrations are attractive. They 
show relative values. Had one cut in this 
section of the advertisement been out of 
proportion it would have ruined the effective- 
ness of the entire display. 

Figure 39 demonstrates the possibilities of 
describing a large amount of curtain and 
drapery material in small space. Furniture 
dealers pay entirely too little attention to 
these important lines and advertising along 
these lines should receive careful attention. 

It is not necessary at all times to make 
"cut" prices as shown in these examples; 
the feature to be Impressed upon the dealer 
is the typographical style — the general style 

of set-up, which can be followed out in al- 
most any printing office. 

Figure 40 shows one way of advertising 
rugs and other floor coverings. A cut adds 
much to the attractiveness of this class o£ 
home furnishings — in fact a rug advertise- 
ment appears very uninteresting unless an 
illustration of some sort is used. A rug 
shown on the floor, with some of the furni- 
ture in place is the most effective, and such 
cuts can be readily secured from the whole- 

Timely Values in 

g f r I c i 'ir i i« riK 

The seas-^n'^ phowinp constitutes 
an interesting .Trray cT rugs in all 
the newest colorings End designs 
from the most famous manufactur- 
ers. The values offered clearly 
emphasize to those who contem- 
plate buyinj: floor coverings the 
advisabilitv of m.-iking their selec- 
tions here Saturday. 


Where moderftte priced nigs arc 
desired these fill every require- 
niertt. They are dependable in 
texture, effective in design and 
colorings at these low prices — 

Size Dxl2 feet $60.00 

Size g'UlOii: feet $55.00 

Size 6\5 feet $35.<>0 


They meet a popular demand for 
every room in the home or apart- 
ment, especially where a decora- 
tive effect is desired at a nominal 
Size 0S13 feet »30.00 

Size S'.iJtlO', feet $19.00 

.Size CO feel B12.O0 

Size 4x7 feet $T.OO 


In a iplendid variety of grades. 
patterns and colorincs no.v much 
used m apnrtmcnt halls. Price per 
yard 85<-. 91.75. $3.0O and 

Floor Covering$ 


In nent small designs and fe>rac- 
licfil coIoriiiKS for resisting wear, 
suitable fur any room at thesfl et- 
traciive prices. 

SiEc 9x12 feet $3T.60 

Size 8'iTlOVi feet $35.00 

Size 7',vk9 feet $2C.OO 

Size 6x9 feet .$20.0« 


Inlaid Linoleumi where the pal- 
lern and colors go through to the 
back in neat tile effects, suitable 
for dining room, kitchen or bath- 
room. Price per square yard, 
S1.7&, 92-25 and $2.50. 

Printed Linoleums, price per 
;quare yard. 65^. $1.35 an<i 


at less than one-half manufnttiir- 
ers' cost price. These are all new 
pieces. IV.-yard lengths, with ends 
serRed, moking them s very prac- 
tical size Tuc for many places in 
the home. 

Body Brussels Carpet Samples. 
I'i yards long, each $2.65 

Wilton Rug Samples, 1'^ yarrt* 
long, each . , . $3.— 5 

Body Brussels Rug Samples. I'A 
y.iids long, each $3.00 

Wilton Rug Samples. IVi y»rds 
long, eat^i $3.76 

Wilton Caiiiet Sample^ 1 H 

yards long, eacn $5.00 

Convenient terms can be arranged 
for payment. 

Fig. 40 

salers. This example of advertising shows a 
wide variety displayed in a very small space. 

There are wonderful possibilities in the 
furniture line. People are building modern 
homes — they want the things that a few 
years ago were within the reach only of the 
extremely wealthy — take advantage of these 
conditions — and go out after business. 

Be seasonable. Show people how to make 
their homes more beautiful — more comfort- 
able — and you'll sell goods. 




One more "secret" before this chapter 
closes: When you are about to announce a 
big sale — be sure and talie large space in 
the newspapers If possible. If you have no 
newspapers send out large circulars. Make 
your advertising enthusiastic — and have the 
employes in your store enthusiastic. Give 
a comprehensive list of all merchandise, and 
go forward with the idea that you have the 
only store — and that this is to be the big- 
gest sale you ever held. Make each sale out- 
do all previous efforts — and have everybody 
in your store strive for this result. 

Make 'Em Work Together 

Have your windows trimmed for these spe- 
cial events, and have the merchandise out in 
plain sight, where people can see it the 
minute they come in. 

Large show cards should point the way — 
and Impress upon your customers that you 
really have hundreds of items ready for 
them at the prices you advertised. 

Fix upon your important sales dates and 
lay your plans at the beginning of the year. 
Never waver from this program. Choose a 
date for your Anniversary Sale, if you are 
not already holding one. This should be In 
the nature of a birthday event, and make it 

a big one. 

Then decide upon a Pre-Inventory Sale 
which you should hold in plenty of time to 
rid your stocks of every item you do not 
want to list and "carry-over." 

Go through stocks thoroughly before you 
announce this sale and you will havee no 
trouble in finding plenty of items to adver- 
tise. Mark them at prices that WILL MOVE 

After "Inventory" usually comes the 
"Clearance" and with the assistance of your 

jobbers and manufacturers you can make 
this another rousing sale, by filling in with 
specially bought merchandise to bring up 
certain lots to the point where you can ad- 
vertise real bargains. Other "clearances" 
can be held throughout the year, and by 
"picking-up" specials from your wholesaler, 
you not only add vigor to your sales, but 
you also make a quick turn-over on the mer- 

Too many merchants are over-bought, and 
do not have the ready cash to do this — but 
all should have a little surplus to take ad- 
vantage of these opportunities — for they 
come frequently, and many a successful 
merchant buys up small lots in advance of 
his sales. 

With the dates for these three sales select- 
ed — there is still an opening for another big 
sale — four each year are not too many. Se- 
lect the date for the additional sale that will 
be most opportune for you. This same rule 
applies to the "Clearance" if the merchant 
does not care to follow his "Inventory" in 
that way. 

Keep a Step or Two Ahead 

Then there are the January White Sales, 
and February White Sales held in many 
localities. There is the February Sale of 
Furniture, and the early Spring sales in 
March; also April and May sales, depending 
upon the arrival of new merchandise, and 
the new things for Spring. You can have 
Summer Sales, "Dollar Days", Community 
Bargain Days, also a Linen Sale, just be- 
fore Thanksgiving, and then begin on the 
Holiday Sales. Always keep in advance of 
the needs of the public, and anticipate their 

Have faith in advertising. 

Keep everlastingly at it. 

And success will be yours. 



Lesson No. 1.— General Directions on Construction of Backgrounds, Mater- 
ials to Use, Decorations of Panels, Etc. 

"How to trim windows." 

Tliafs the problem that seems to be puz- 
zling a great many merchants — yet it 
shouldn't be a puzzling question at all. 

Decorating windows and interiors — 
planning new displays, and making decora- 
tive backgrounds is in reality very easy. 

First of all— YOU MUST PROVIDE A 

Not one store in a hundred has made any 
arrangements for a work room, or any place 
where a bench can be placed and a few car- 
penter tools hung. If you are going to do 
any window work or decorating worth the 
name — it is absolutely necessary that you 
have a place where you can "spread out", 
and build ornamental pieces. 

And there should be a store room where 
many of these "set pieces" can be stored for 
future use. 

Don't tear things out of the window as 
though you were tearing down an old 
house. Preserve as much of your work as 
possible, at least try and save the material. 
Do not be destructive. Material costs 
money — and if it can be used over and over 
again — you are saving something and can 
expend the money for artificial foliage, fix- 
tures, etc. 

In window work — it is necessary to have 
a suitable background, either a permanent 
background, — one that is handsomely fin- 
ished, or you must arrange to build one that 
will serve the purpose. 

Many window men prefer to build their 
own backgrounds, making them semi-perma- 
nent, and In front of these — build their or- 
namental trims. 

Building a semi-permanent background is 
very simple, but you must first decide on the 
general dimensions as to height, and hov 
many panels you desire. 

Figure "1" shows how the frame work 
should appear from the rear side — or the 
reverse side, as applied to the side facing 
the street. 

Make your frame work in sections — if you 
have a corner to provide for, or an end or 

side. Make the entire back a separate sec- 
tion, and the same rule applies to other sec- 
tions of divisions. 

Use fairly heavy material — nothing lighter 
than %-inch boards, and even heavier if 
the window is quite long. Have the lumber 
well dressed, even as to thickness, and at 
least 3 Inches wide. Then proceed as indi 
cated in Figure "1". 

First have one edge of the boards "sid'^- 

pearance of the window to have the lower 
board of the frame a trifle wider than the 
others, if possible. 

When you have the' four sided frame com- 
pleted, arrange for the up-and-down strips 
which will form the frame for the panels. 

Cut these strips the same lengths exactly 
— and then fasten at top and bottom with 
screws, so that the strips may be moved if 
necessary should you at some time decide 
to add to the number of panels or to reduce 
the number of panels. If you use nails, you 
will ruin your framework in endeavoring to 
make any changes or alterations. 

You now have your frame ready for dec- 
orating or painting, and this can be left to 
the individual taste of the "trimmer" as 
necessity may indicate. A rich mahogany 


tongued" or side grooved to a depth equal 
to the thickness of wall board, or whatever 
material you are going to use for panels, 
and have these grooves wide enough to hold 
the wall board in place at least a half-incu 
in width. Then saw the boards into suit- 
able lengths, having the two extreme ends 
long enough to be the total height of your 
background. Fasten these to the two piecfs 
that have been cut for the top and bottom 
strips, and insert screics through the end 
pieces into the top and bottom boards. 

Do not use nails. 

You can keep the front of the frame very 
firm and even by clamping the corners with 
iron clamps and using a block of wood on 
the front to hold "the faces of the board.s 
even, to make a smooth surface. 

It will also a"dd much to the general ap- 

Fig. 1 

is a good color; many stores are now using 
a French gray, others prefer a cream tint, 
while for grocery stores an enamel white is 
very good. Select a good color that will 
permit your merchandise to show up well, 
and if you decide to change the color, it can 
be done later. 

The panel marked "A" in the drawing No. 
1 shows how the frame work should be 
grooved, to permit the wall board panels to 
fit into place. 

Panel "B" shows one of the wall board 
panels in place, and with several of the 
"wooden" buttons turned to hold the wall 
board in place. These buttons should be 
placed at intervals of about six inches to 
prevent the board from warping. 

Figure "2" shows various ways of decorat- 
ing the panels. The first panel on the left 
is shown in place, and painted a plain color, 
slightly darker than the frame work, which 
in this instance is supposed to have been 
stained a natural color — showing the grain 
of the wood. 

The center panel has been left open so 
as to show the plan of construction of the 
frame, as viewed from the "front" side. 

The third or last panel shows how many 
beautiful effects may be obtained by having 
the center of the panel one color, and using 
a contrasting color or lighter color for the 
margin. On the panel indicated it is in- 
tended to show how the two colors could be 
separated by nailing onto the panel narrow 
strips of gold beading, or narrow jiicture 
frame moulding. If regular gold beading is 
not to be had, get narrow strips from the 


lumber yard, and gild them with gold paint 
— this will do almost as well. 

This, in a few words, is the way to build 
a very satisfactory background, and at very 
little expense. 

Make the end sections in the same man- 
ner, and Join them to the back with clamps 
or screws. Have all "joints" as tight as 


Decorative Screen Background, Easily Made 
From Inexpensive Materials. 

Here is a simple, sure fire idea that will 
greatly increase your December sales. Be- 
gin planning right now, and put in an at- 
tractive Christmas window. 

The greater the number of suggestions 
you can offer during the Christmas buying 
season, the greater will be your sales, and 
consequent profits. 

Footwear of all classes, attractively dis- 
played in a neat window that carries the 
suggestion of Christmas, will make a strong 
Impression upon the passerby, because such 
a window creates a desire to buy. 

An attractive window adds greatly to the 
desirability and apparent worth of any mer- 
chandise, particularly to footwear. 

Any retailer, apvwhere, can prepare a 
very appropriate window for the Holiday 
season, and the cost will be very little — 
almost nothing. All that is required is a 
little time, a little pride in store appearance 
■ — and a little ingenuity. 

Hundreds of general merchants seem to 
think that they must be big city "artists" 
to properly trim a window. 

find in any store, or procure at very little 
cost, and the work of building this orna- 
mental, semi-background is very simple. 

The first step is to "size up" your window 
and decide on the dimensions for the center 
screen and the two side screens. The center 
"screen" should be high enough to stand out 
well after the merchandise is in place, and 
the panels should be just wide enough so 
that the three "screens" will not crowd the 

When you have decided on the height and 
width of the various panels, get some two- 
inch strips for the frame work of the cen- 
ter figure, and cut them all the same length 
— you will need six strips for the uprights. 
Saw the strips for the cross pieces at the 
same time. Then nail two of the uprights 
to two of the cross pieces, keeping the joints 
even on what will be the "street side" of 
the frame; then you will have your central 
screen ready for the paint. Have the bot- 
tom cross pieces about 6 inches from the 
floor, cut the half circle from two pieces of 
wide pine board, joined at the top. 
Construction Advice 

Proceed the same with the side screens, 
curling 12 strips for the uprights, four of 
them being about 4 inches longer than the 
others, and these can be made from strips 
one inch square, or even smaller. The cross 
pieces should be at least two inches wide 
and as thick as the strips. The idea of 
using wider strips for the cross pieces is to 
add to the strength of the panels. Have the 
bottom cross pieces of the small screens 
about twice the distance from the floor as 
compared with the large center panels. 

And bear this important point in mind — 
in building any fixture for your windows — 
do it carefully, and make up everything in 

On the contrary — they are far from the 
truth. Even in the smallest towns it is pos- 
sible to have wonderful windows, but you 
must have a place to do the work. There 
must be a work bench and a few carpenter 
tools. With these things at hand and a few 
pine strips — there is no limit to the beauti- 
ful windows and backgrounds that can be 

Easy Background to Make 

The accompanying illustration shows 
what can be accomplished with inexpensive 
materials — plain pine strips that you can 

a thoroughly substantial manner, so that the" 
frames may be stored away, or redecorated, 
and used at some future time. 

When the frames are completed, choose 
some material that will do for the panels. 
If you cannot use some blue cloth, use wall 
board painted a sky blue, or you can pro- 
cure some dark blue cardboard from your 
printer. If it is necessary to use cardboard, 
be sure to build yo'Ur side frames not longer 
than 26 inches from lower cross piece to the 
top, because cardboard is 2S inches long and 
you must allow for nailing. Your center 

screen can be much higher between cross 
pieces, because you can add a smaller cross 
piece to hide the "joint" where it has been 
necessary to piece the cardboard. 
Further Instructions 

The next important step is to spatter the 
cardboard as shown in the illustration, 
with white paint, or other white coloring 

A white water color is suggested because 
after it has been carefully spattered you can 
add a dash of "diamond dust" before the 
color dries, which will add to the snow 
effect. Before trying paint on your card- 
board, make a trial spatter on an extra 
piece of board to see whether or not the oil 
in the paint will spread, and leave an oily, 
spotted surface. If the oil spreads, then you 
should mix some liquid whiting — adding the 
diamond dust before it dries. Paint will 
work on wall board, but not always on card- 
board. After you have spattered the panels 
place them where they will dry quickly, and 
proceed to paint your frames a light blue — 
in fact a very light blue — in contrast to the 
color of the panels. Water color will do 
for this, or you can use paint. 

When your frames have dried, tack the 
cardboard or wall board onto the back, and 
fasten the frames together with small strips 
of leather or canvas for hinges, and youi 
decorative scheme is about completed. 
All May Help 

This part of the work can be done within 
a, couple of hours, and at odd times by any- 
one in the store, if you do not have a regu- 
lar window decorator. 

Holly wreaths can be placed on the 
screens as shown, or anywhere else about 
the display if you so desire. 

In placing footwear in the window, and 
this would make an ideal footwear window, 
keep the holiday footwear together, either 
in the center, along the front, on one end. 

Have the highest point of your display In 
the center, directly in front of the laige 
screen, and the next two highest points 
should be in front of the other two screens, 
with the lower points of the display be- 

Christmas Accessories 

Two small Christmas trees with candles, 
or electric bulbs lighted, would add much 
to the trim, and if the window is large 
enough these trees could be placed between 
the screens. 

Stands, pedestals, and small decorative 
tables will aid in assembling the footwear 
and make the window appear less monoto- 
nous than where the single standards are 

An effective way of building up the fix- 
tures for the shoes, would be to take several 
small boxes varying in size, and use cotton 
batting for the floor of the window, as- well 
as building the cotton over the boxes to 
resemble snow. Sprinkle the floor with dia- 
mond dust and you will have a very attract- 
ive window. 


In placing your holly wreaths add a 
touch of bright red and green ribbon about 
the display — and a few attractive show 



A Plan for Redecorating the Screens Shown 
in Previous Lesson. 

Here's a plan for redecorating the window 
setting which was shown in the previous 

Before proceeding with the redecorating, 
however, you should refer to page 39, and 
note how the trim was originally planned. 

In retriniming your window, using the 

Small colored globes, green or a frosted 
white, are preferred, and these should be 
fastened to the tops of your candles, one on 
each. You can use storage batteries, or you 
can have the electrician in your city do the 
wiring. The wire should come in from thi; 
back of the window, and you can groove the 
"candle" on the side away from the street 
10 hide the wire. If preferred, you can use 
a "bit" and drill a hole through the center 
of the candle for the wiring and socket. 

This completes the decorative, oblon;; 

design shown in this article, all that is 
necessary is to first remove the screens, then 
put up the decorative, oblong panels, as 
shown in the background, fastening them 
against the wall. 

These "oblong" panels should be 
enough to balance with the remainder of the 
trim. Do not make them too small, for if 
you do they will look out of place; and if too 
large, they will attract from everything else. 
About eighteen inches, or less, will be a 
good length, and they should be of neat, ob- 
long shape. Pine boards will do for the 
rough work. Cover them with red crepe 
paper, or red plush. Plush is much the 
richer, but crepe paper will do just as well. 
If you use paper, do not smooth out the 
"wrinkles", but tack the paper just Arm 
enough to hold it in place, keeping th;» 
edges as even as possible, and use all tacks 
on the back of the frame. 

When these oblongs have been covered, se- 
cure a round piece of wood, about two inches 
in diameter, for your candlesticks. Two 
pieces about 10 or 12 inches long will do, 
and cut the tops of each so that there will 
be a slight slope, to represent candles that 
have burned slightly more on one side than 
the other. Paint these sticks a pure white, 
and when the paint has dried, use some 
"plaster of Paris", modeling this about the 
top of the stick to give the effect of wax run 
down over the sides of the candle. 

This done, the next step is to secure some 
boards and build two brackets or arms for 
the candles. These arms may be made in 
any shape, but should be about three inches 
wide at the bottom, possibly four inches, and 
you can nail these to the background panel, 
after having painted them a bronze color. 
Fasten your candles to the arms, and you 
are ready for the electric wiring. 

The next steps are very simple, and should 
take but a very few minutes. 

Enter the Snowdrifts 

Use the same decorative screens. With a 
brush and white paint, daub over the lower 
section of the screens, as shown in the draw- 
ing, leaving the top section the original 
blue; or if you prefer, the top section could 
be repainted a very light, sky blue. When 
the white paint has dried, take a small 
brush, using black paint or ink. and make 
outlines which will represent the outlines of 
the snow drifts. When the black paint has 
dried, use a somewhat larger brush and 
olive green ink, and paint a few pine trees 
as shown. 

This completes the painting. 

Next, take some cotton batting and trim 
the tops of the frames, as shown, to repre- 
sent snow, and sprinkle mica, or artificial 
snow, over the cotton. 

Place the screens in the window, and you 
are ready for the merchandise. 

Build the merchandise highest in the cen- 

ter, using a table or oecorative bencn. Tnerx 
have the outline of the merchandise trim 
drop down gradually, then up — leaving the 
"ends" of the trim slightly higher than the 
Intervening spaces. 

In other words, the highest point in the 
trim should be in front of the large screen, 
the next points in front of the smaller end 
screens, and you will have a well balanced, 
Christmas window. 


Definite and Simple Directions for Window 

Backgrounds for This Season of 

the Year. 

The size and general dimension of the 
"trim" illustrated depends of course upon 
the size of your window. If your window 
is not as long in proportion as suggested in 
the drawing, then you should narrow up the 
center panel. If you have a window that 
is much longer, but very low, then you 
might run the "oval" the long way of the 
window, and narrow it up somewhat. The 
"oval" should be in proportion to the gener- 
al trim, or at least this particular section. 

For the frame of the oval use anything 
that is handy, barrel hoops, or light strips. 
The color of the oval, and the side squares 
should be a beautiful, lively purple. Wall 
paper, with a neat stripe or other "quiet" 
figure running through it, would make a 
good covering for the oval, and the outer 
edges could be covered with ribbon or 
other decorative material, to hide the nail 
heads or tacks. If you decide to use cloth or 
plush for the oval, any neat light frame will 
do. The same applies to the side squares, 
which should be covered with similar ma- 

The word "EASTER" should be made of 
letters cut out of heavy cardboard, and then 
painted with gold or silver pajnt. These 
letters can then be fastened upon a small 
bar and readily fastened to the oval. 

A small stand, preferably of a decorative 
character, will serve as a flower stand, and 
any ornamental vase, with real,- or artificial 
flowers and foliage, will do for the center 

As shown in the illustration, there are 


small sections of lattice work, standing just, 
back of the side squares. 

This lattice work is made of small pine 
strips about one-half inch square and when 
in place artificial foliage should be woven 
in and out, very profusely through the 
small squares. 

The lattice work can be painted white and 
the foliage should abound in green, and 
bright colors. If the lattice work is painted 
a bright green, be sure and use foliage or 
other decorative matter that will add to the 

Flowers or Foliage 

The outside rim of the large oval may 
also be decorated with flowers or foliage, if 
you have a sufficient quality. 

This in brief is the general scheme. It 
may be altered to fit various windows and 
to conform to unforseen conditions, but if 
rightly put in place, and trimmed as indi- 
cated, it will prove a very effective back- 
ground, and the expense is small. 


Directions for Fasliioning Attractive Stage 
Setting for Shoes, Dry Goods or Ready- 
to- Wear Witii Sketch Showing Its 
Finished Appearance. 

Proper decorative backgrounds for your 
windows will make Summer merchandise 
appear all the more desirable. 

When trade conditions seem to be slow, no 
merchant can afford to overlook anything 
that will aid in the selling of goods. 

Simple decorative schemes for temporary 
backgrounds are easily originated, and if 
you have preserved some of the "lattice 
work" from previous window trims, the sug- 
gestion shown here can be carried out that 
much easier. 

The frames for the panels here shown 
may be made from any material 3-4 to 7-S 
inches in thickness and about two inches 
wide. If your window is quite long, and 
you have to widen out the panels to keep 
the proportion, make the strips three inches 

If your window is extremely long, and 
you desire to follow out this scheme 

through the entire length, make extra pan- 
els, somewhat smaller than the two end 
panels shown, and place them between the 
center and the present end panels. 

The panels proper (that is the material 
to fit inside the frames) may be made of 
wall board, or cardboard tacked or "but- 
toned" to the back of the frames; or crepe 
paper may be used. 

Color Scheme 

The color scheme for the frame work de- 
pends upon the surroundings, but French 
grey, or ivory is to be preferred. The panels 
should be a rich, bluish-purple. The lattice 
work may be French grey or ivory to match 
the frame, but a prettier effect will be ob- 
tained if the lattice work is painted a pale 

This color scheme can be elaborated upon 

between the panels, or small flower pots 
with artificial flowers may be set in front 
of the panels. 

This window is practical for shoes, dry 
goods, or ready-to-wear, and the cost of in- 
stallation is almost negligible. 


Suggestions for Fourth of July That Will 
Sell Goods. 

There are two important points to con- 
sider in planning a "Fourth of July" win- 

From the merchants' point of view such 
a window should be planned with the idea 
of increasing sales of certain merchandise, 

to a great extent as the designer may 
have the materials at hand and the neces- 
sary time. 

A gold beading may be added to either 
the face of the frames, or inserted around 
the inside edge. Flower pots, preferably 
antique or Oriental in design, may be added 

rather than to build a window that will at- 
tract attention only, cause people to stop, 
look, and comment on the wonderful "trim," 
and not be attracted by the goods displayed. 
What Kind of Display? 

Another point to be decided is whether 
you are going to place a "regular" display 
of goods, or if the window will contain a 
seasonable display — or perhaps a display 
part seasonable and part regular. 

In this instance, by the word "seasonable" 
we mean picnic supplies for lunches, fire- 
crackers, fire works, etc. A "regular" 
display would be a regular grocery display, 
with perhaps a part of the display naturally 
devoted to picnic suggestions for an outdoor 

In some communities, it is desirable to 
put in a patriotic display and have it elab- 
orate — even to the point of subordinating 
the grocery products, simply to cause com- 
ment and have people stop. This plan, how- 
ever, should be followed out in only the 
smaller communities, or in the larger cities, 
where — in the latter case — a small part of 
the immense window space can be devoted 
to this purpose without much loss of space. 
Historical and IVIerchandise 

If there are available some relics from the 


battlefields of Europe, it will be an easy 
matter to make a feature display of them 
alone, but it is much better to couple up 
the historical features with merchandise. 

Now for the building of the background, 
as illustrated. 

Naturally the general outline of the decor- 
ations will depend upon the size of your 
window — heighth and length. The idea as 
shown here may be lengthened or height- 
ened as required. 

The various panels may be made from 
sheets o£ cardboard, tacked on a frame to 
keep the joints close, or regular bunting 
may be used if the designs procurable are 
what you desire. In this instance the bunt- 
ing should be tacked onto some firm ma- 
terial that will add stiffness to the panels. 
Clean Background Only 
If you find it necessary or desirable to 
use cardboard or wall board, cut the designs 
as you want them and then proceed to dec- 
orate. If you have selected wall board, 
which if course is preferred because of its 
stability, give it two or three coats of white, 
until it is a snow white. Don't try to make 
up a good window with a "dirty" white back- 

The next step is to decide whether or not 
your merchandise is going to be a display 
that will be rather dark, or if all the things 
that are going into the window are going to 
be relatively "light" In color. 

If the general display of merchandise is 
to be dark, then reverse the design as sug- 
gested in the drawing, and have the alter- 
nate white and red striped panel at the top, 
and the stars at the bottom. If the general 
tone of your display is going to be light, 
such as canned foods, fruits, etc., the dark 
blue background with the white stars will 
be best tor the top — as shown in the draw- 

How to Stripe 
Striping the white panel with red is easy. 
Use a long "straight edge" for drawing the 
lines with a pencil, and then follow up with 
a brush, using bright red paint or show card 

For forming the blue field cut out a num- 
ber of stars from cheap Manila tag board, 
which may be procured from your printers, 
or you can cut star shapes from cardboard 
boxes, using material that is not too heavy. 
The stars need not be all the same size — 
better to have them vary and. when suffi- 
cient number have been cut, pin or tack 
them to the panel. Then take blue show 
card color, or paint, and spray the back- 
ground thoroughly, the same as a frescoer 
does. For spraying, use an atomizer, or a 
stiff bristled brush, then remove the card- 
board shapes and you have white stars. 

If you are inclined to be artistic and have 
the time, first paint the panel blue, and 
then paint white stars on this, or tack on 
white cardboard stars. This takes time, 
but some may prefer to do it that way. 

If you spray — be sure to have the panels 

lying flat on the floor, as the color may run, 

and spoil your star outline otherwise. 

Firecracker Dummies 

The same ruli'S apply to decorating the 

small shield at the center of the top. If 

desired the shield may be eliminated, and 
only the flags used for the center piece. 
Another idea would be to make up several 
"dummy" or imitation firecrackers, very 
large in size, and use these for a top cen- 
ter piece. 

The whole design can be nailed to up- 
right strips, and then placed in the window, 
or fastened to the regular window back- 
ground — just as preferred. 

In getting the shapes of the panels uni- 
form it is a good plan to cut your pattern 
from wrapping paper, and marking your out- 
lines from these. Simply fold the wrapping 
paper to a point that will be the center of 
your panel, and then your two sides will 
be exactly alike. 

The merchandise for this display should 
be arranged on stands and steps, and not 
be massed so tightly as to hide the decora- 

Center and End Displays 

There should be a high display of goods 
in the center, and the displays on the ends 
should be rather high. 

The intermediate points can be filled out 
to give a pleasing outline to the general 

If war relics, etc., are to be used, they 
can be grouped in the center near the front 
of the window, or two groups made — one 

steps upon which some of the mechandise 
should be displayed. 

Make your windows suggestive — make 
them pay in actual results. If people will 
stop to look at the decorations — it is best 
to have something in the window that will 
suggest something for them to take home. 


Another "Patriotic" Trim for General Store 
Windows or Exclusive Footwear. 

The drawing reproduced herewith is a 
suggestion for a background trim which is 
particularly well adapted to footwear, but 
may also be used for a dry goods window or 
for a combination display. 

To make the window appear as attractive 
as possible, the whole display should be 
backed up by pure white or very faint blue 
cloth draping, arranged in neat plaits or 

It is easy to arrange a background drap- 
ing of this kind by having the cloth strung 
on wires and these wires fastened to the 
sides and the back of the window. This is 
the first step in making a display. The next 
step is arranging the alternate red and 
white striped panels as shown in the sketch. 

These panels should be of such shape that 


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on each end. If the relics are small, they 
should be near the glass where people can 
readily see them, and if an explanation is 
deemed necessary — each article should be 
appropriately tagged. 

Another unique idea would be to build a 
flag staff in the center of the window. Have 
a flag flying from the top. kept fluttering by 
the breeze from a large electric fan, placed 
in the back corner of the window and 
partially hidden from the public by a mask- 
ing of foliage, etc. 

Flag Pole Base 

Tile foot of the flag staff could be sur- 
rounded with a round table, arranged in 

they harmonize nicely with the general di- 
mensions of the window or section of the 
window as the case may be. 

It is preferred that these panels be made 
of good material, and a good grade of white 
cloth might be used with red ribbon serving 
as the up and down stripes. However, cheap 
bunting or common flags can be used. In 
the latter case, the blue field with the stars 
should be folded out of sight. 

Where Wall Board is Used 

If wall board or other substantial ma- 
terial is handy, these ornamental panels 
should be tacked to this substantia! ma- 
terial, and around the outer edge of these 


panels should be nailed a very neat gilded 
moulding, very much the same as a narrow 
gilt picture frame. 

If these panels are made in this manner 
they can be easily suspended from the back 
and sides of the window. 

The blue border with the white stars 
should be of a good grade of material to 
harmonize with the panels, but if common 
body be used for the panels the same ma- 
terial will do for the border. 

Silk Very Desirable 
If, however, you desire the best effect 
possible, silk material should be used for 
the panels, and a strip of blue silk should 
be used for the border, or perhaps a strip of 
plush; and the white stars could be made of 
white card board and fastened with ordinary 

If the decorator finds it desirable to make 
up a border, the strip of cloth may be made 
of blue and the white stars painted thereon; 
or white cloth may be used for the border, 
and, by cutting out the star shapes from 
cheap card board boxes, these can be fas- 
tened in their proper places and the border 
stenciled with an air brush or common 
atomizer, dark blue show card colors being 
used for that work. 

If a plain border is desired, such as is 
shown in the drawing, this should also be 
fastened to some substantial material, and 
a wide border would do very nicely. 

The idea of tacking the panel to a board 
is that when the border is in place, it should 
be trimmed on the top and bottom with 
neat gilded moulding to match the panels. 
Different Effect 
If a straight line border is not desired, 
the effect can be changed by draping the ' 
blue field in very neat drapes, having the 
largest and deepest drape in the center. 

The shield can be easily made from any 
substantial material that is large enough, 
first painting the material a glossy white, 
then outlining the blue field with the stars 
in white. The edges of the shield should be 
beveled and touched up with a gold paint. 

Two ordinary flags may be used for the 
trim as indicated, or a large number of flags 
can be used as desired. 

The arrangement of flre crackers behind 
the shield can be made by using light-weight 
card board bent in cylindrical form and 
painted dark red. If desired, however, some 
other decoration may be substituted for the 
fire crackers. 

In placing the footwear in the window, it 
would add to the general color scheme to 
use fixture of a light shade of blue if pos- 
sible especially tor the display of white 

Draped Display Devices 
If this is impossible, the stands and deco- 
rative pedestals should be draped with blue 
plush or blue silk in several places through- 
out the display to keep up the color scheme. 
The blue draping should particularly be 
interwoven with the display of white shoes, 

War Relics, Etc. 

If it is desired to use some war relics and 
souvenirs, these could be grouped on small 

stands or placed on the floor close to the 
front of the window, depending on the num- 
ber and size of the articles used. 

If the relics are of such size and shape 
that you desire to make them a feature of 
the window, the center could be used for 
this purpose, taking as much room as neces- 
sary, and the footwear could then be ar- 
ranged in two groups on either side — 
somewhat in the shape of a semicircle. 

The background design has been drawn 
with the idea in mind that the center of 
the display should be quite high. 
Economy or Opposite 

This is a window that can be made up 
very elaborately, depending on the expense 
and material available. The more expensive 
the material used, the neater will be the 
display, although ordinary bunting and 
cheap material may be used with a very 
good effect where economy is desired. 

It is suggested that the panels and shield 
should be made quite permanent, so that 
they may be used again. 


B.ickground Suggestions for Seasonable 
Trirrs That May Be Used Any Time. 

The illustration here reproduced, is a very 
attractive window background tor shoes, 
general merchandise, or even clothing. 

The trim can be made up at very little 
expense, or it may be elaborated upon — 
depending on the foliage or flowers, and 
other additional trimmings the display man 
or merchant has on hand or desires to use. 

For Spring the draped background may 

be made in the work room, and taken into 
the window afterward. 

If all the work must be done inside the 
window, and you do not care to drive tacks 
or pins into the woodwork, proceed as fol- 

Sew a wide seam across the top of the 
cloth, the long way, then insert a wire or 
stout cord, or even an iron rod, and suspend 
this across the window at the height you 
want the drape. Then this drape can be 
tacked to a 2-inch strip at the bottom. 

Another quick way of draping is to use a 
stout "drawstring" at the top and bottom 
of the drape. If the window is rather small, 
and you are careful, you can even drape 
crepe paper by using a draw string at the 
top and bottom and then fasten to a frame 
to fit the window. 

If the right shade of green or dark red is 
unobtainable, a very pale blue or tan may 
be used — in fact for clothing and men's 
furnishings — the latter is preferred. 

After the background drape is in place, 
the ornamental figures may be brought in. 

These panels may be made of wall board 
and painted a rich, bright purple, or you 
can procure mat board, or card board of the 
right shade of purple. 

The window effect, or lattice work across 
the face of the panels is made by using nar- 
row pine strips, enameled with white paint, 
or you can cut strips of heavy white card 
board the proper width. 

In the drawing, reproduced herewith, it 
is impossible to show the beauty of this 
window, but such an arrangement is really 
very attractive. 

Of course, this idea is only basic and may 
be elaborated upon considerably, depending 

be any material of a bright green color that 
will cover the space. 

For Fall this background drape should be 
a deep golden red. Crepe paper will do, or 
cloth may be used. The closer the pleats, 
or folds, the more attractive the drape, 
hence cloth is preferred. 

If there is an opening to your show win- 
dow through which a large frame can be 
taken into the window, this back drape can 

upon the time, and amount of material you 
have to work with. 

There should be flower pots, vases, and 
fancy stands distributed throughout the dis- 
play of merchandise, and at least three large 
vases should be procured for the holding 
of real or artificial Easter lilies, these to 
sit in front of the panels. 

If your window is of such size that only 
the center panel can be used — then make 


this large enough to balance your display, 
and use only the one large vase, or you 
could place a vase on either side of the 
panel. Bear in mind that the flowers should 
be set high enough to show through and 
above the merchandise display. 

The arrangement of the flowers and fo- 
liage adds much to the richness of the color 
scheme — and the more color, the better. 

The merchandise trim, or arrangement, 
should be so placed that the top outline 
comes well up beyond the center of the 
middle panel. 

It's a very easy trim — but if put in right, 
will prove decidedly effective. 


Hardware Dealers Must Not Neglect Their 

Windows — Many Items People Buy 

Are Through Suggestion. 

Hardware dealers as a rule are very care- 
less in the general arrangement of their 
windows. This is the wrong attitude for 
the reason that many dollars' worth of extra 
business can be brought into any store 
through the proper display of seasonable 
merchandise in the show windows. 

Perhaps the reason so many hard- 
ware men are careless and indifferent con- 
cerning their show windows is that very 
few ideas are given them which are simple 
enough for general use. 

Here is One Way 

If such is the case, here is an idea for a 
window bacliground that requires very lit- 
tle material, and very little time. 

The general dimensions of the background 
may be changed, from the proportions 
shown in the drawing, to fit any size win- 
dow. Wall board is most suitable and prac- 
tical for the panels, but cardboard may be 
used, or board panels may be made, and 
then covered with wall paper of a suitable 

Ordinary pine boards will do for the gen- 
eral frame work, but these should be of a 
uniform thickness and smoothly planed on 
one side. Fasten this frame work securely 
together by using lag screws, or by fasten- 
ing the reinforcing blocks with screws onto 
the back of the framework. When this is 
done paint the frame work a suitable color, 
and you are ready for the rest of the trim. 
Bear in mind, however, that the frame work 
should be of a color that is in strong con- 

trast to the color of the panels. If the pan- 
els are green, have the frame work painted 
a cream color, or other contrasting light 
color, or stained a natural oak. 

To Make the Big Baseball 
You can make a very good imitation of 
the big "baseball" design by borrowing a 
large wooden "butter bowl" from some 
dealer, if you do not have them in your 
own store. Paint the outside of this bowl 
with a white water color, and stripe with 
black where the "seams" of the cover would 
come. Then make little red dashes with 
a small brush to imitate the stitches. Cut 
a hole in the panel that will admit the 
butter bowl, but be sure that the cut-out is 
not too large. There must be a snug fit. 

many dealers will decide to place many 
varying lines in this space. 

For those who handle bicycles, coaster 
wagons, etc., these articles should be 
grouped in the center. If there is plenty of 
room the bicycles might be placed upon a 
platform, thus giving more room in front 
for the display of other merchandise. 
Display Seasonable Goods 

If you do not handle bicycles, or do not 
care to display them in this window, use 
the center space for any other merchandise 
that is seasonable. You can display lawn 
mowers, hose, seeds, etc., it matters not, 
so long as you place something seasonable 
in the window, and have it neatly arranged. 
Do not crowd the window, but place therein 

and then a board may be mailed across the 
back of the panel to hold the bowl in place. 

The steps in front may be made of boxes 
of various sizes, and these should be cov- 
ered with some green material. 

Upon these "steps" display your baseball 
and tennis goods, bats, rackets, balls, mits 
and gloves, shoes, hosiery, etc. 

Trim for Rest of Window 

The opposite side of the window is easily 
arranged. Simply group a few fishing rods, 
tackle boxes, minnow pails, and various sets 
of bait, etc. Also have a large show card 
naming the various opening dates, or any 
other information you care to use. 

The center of the window has been left 
blank in the drawing for the reason that 

as many articles as you can that will call 
people's attention to the things they should 
be buying, and that you want them to buy. 

This is a very simple window, and yet will 
prove decidedly attractive, especially in the 
smaller towns. It may be elaborated upon, 
and perhaps many an ingenious window 
trimmer will think up some scheme for 
making a number of large "baseballs" to 
add to the attractiveness and attention pull- 
ing power of the display. 

Our suggestion to all hardware dealers is 
— do not permit this season to go by with- 
out decorating your windows. Get out of 
the old rut, and push your store to the 
front. It will pay big in actual dollars and 


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